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The Laws of Association Croquet - 5th Edition ( Superseded 2000)

Please note that these laws have been replaced with the 6th Edition of the Laws.

Copyright © 1989 The Croquet Association

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means; electronic, electrostatic, magnetic tape, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Croquet Association.


Association Croquet is the official name of the game of croquet most widely played throughout the world and at international level. The Laws are sometimes known as the International Laws.

The Laws of Association Croquet are maintained by the Croquet Association on behalf of the International Laws Meeting (ILM). The ILM comprises representatives from the Croquet Association (domiciled in England), the New Zealand Croquet Council, the Australian Croquet Association, and the United States Croquet Association. These countries play a full part in the preparation of the Laws and their contributions are gratefully acknowledged. The Laws were first published in their current format as a booklet in 1961; the fifth and latest edition was published in 1989 and reprinted with minor amendments in 1992. These web pages have been reproduced from the 1992 reprint.

The Regulations for Tournaments are a matter for the governing body under whose jurisdiction the tournaments are held. The regulations attached here are those of the Croquet Association and have been widely adopted with appropriate amendments in other countries.

The Laws and Regulations are available as a booklet from the Croquet Association.


Index

Part 1: The Standard Court and Equipment

1. The standard court
2. Equipment
3. Court accessories

Part 2: Ordinary Singles Play

A. An Outline of the Game

4. An outline of the game

B. General Laws of Play

5. The toss before the start of a game
6. The start of a game
7. Ball in play
8. Option of striker to play either ball
9. Ball in hand
10. Ball off the court
11. Ball in the yard-line area
12. Replacement of a ball off the court or in the yard-line area
13. Wiring lift
14. Hoop point
15. Peg point
16. Roquet
17. Hoop and roquet in the same stroke
18. Consequences of a roquet

C. Miscellaneous Laws of Play

19. Placing balls for a croquet stroke
20. Croquet stroke
21. Continuation stroke
22. Ball moving between strokes
23. Imperfections on the surface of the court
24. Interference with a stroke
25. Local laws

D. Errors and Interference with Play

26. Definitions
27. Playing when not entitled to do so
28. Playing a wrong ball
29. Playing when a ball is misplaced - general rule
30. Playing when a ball is misplaced - exceptions
31. Definition of a stroke and the striking period
32. Faults
33. Interference with a ball between strokes
34. Interference with a ball during a stroke
35. Playing when misled

Part 3: Other Forms of Play

A. Advanced Singles Play

36. Optional lift or contact

B. Semi-Advanced Singles Play

37. Optional lift or contact

C. Handicap Singles Play

38. Bisques
39. Pegging out

D. Doubles Play

40. General
41. Ordinary doubles play
42. Advanced and semi-advanced doubles
43. Handicap doubles play.

Part 4: Customs of the Game

44. The state of the game
45. Referees of the game
46. Interruption of the striker and presence on court
47. Replacing yard-line balls
48. Expedition in play
49. Advice and aids
50. Tournament and match play
51. Emergency law

Part 5: Modified Games and Courts

52. Modified Games
53. Advanced play in modified games
54. Semi-advanced play in modified games
55. Handicap play in modified games
56. Smaller courts

Appendixes

Appendix 1: Metric Equivalents to Standard Dimensions
Appendix 2: Guide to Conduct in Double-Banked Games
Appendix 3: Full Bisque Handicap Play
Appendix 4: Alternate Stroke Handicap Doubles Play
Appendix 5: Short Croquet
The Laws of Golf Croquet

Regulations for Tournaments

General

1. Introduction
2. Eligibility to compete in calendar fixtures
3. Officials

Referees

Modified March 1999
4. The Tournament Referee
5. Referee in Charge
6. Referee on Call
7. Referee on Appeal
8. Spectator Referee
8A. Assistant Referee
9. Umpire
10. Handicaps
11. The Tournament Handicapper

Management of Tournaments

12. The Manager
13. Time limits
14. Knock-out events
15. American events
16. Swiss events
17. Class events

Responsibilities of Clubs or Other Bodies Organising Tournaments

18. Calendar fixtures
19. Tournament programme

Players

20. Assumed names
21. Entries
22. Responsibility for correct handicap

Other

Schedule of Bisques in Modified Games
Guide to Limit of Claims


Part 1 - The Standard Court and Equipment

1. The Standard Court

(a) THE STANDARD COURT . The standard Court is a rectangle measuring 35 by 28 yards. Its border must be marked out clearly, the inner edge of the definitive border being the actual boundary. Where more than one marking is visible, the most recent defines the true boundary.

standard court DIAGRAM 1. The Standard Court. The corners are depicted by Roman numerals. The yard-line, indicated by dashed white lines and baulk-lines are not marked on the court. All distances are in yards.

(b) DIAGRAM 1. This diagram depicts the setting for the standard court and together with its accompanying explanations is part of this law.

(c) COURT REFERENCES . The four boundaries are known as the south, west, north and east boundaries regardless of the actual orientation of the court. The corners of the court are known as corners 1, 2, 3 and 4.

(d) YARD-LINE. YARD-LINE AREA, CORNER SPOT, CORNER SQUARE . The perimeter of an inner rectangle parallel to and distant one yard from the boundary is called the yard-line, its corners the corner spots and the space between the yard-line and the boundary the yard-line area. The square yard formed at each corner by the two corner pegs, the corner spot and the corner flag is called a corner square (see Diagram 2).

corner DIAGRAM 2. The Corner Square.

(e) BAULK-LINES . The parts of the yard-line that extend from the corner spots at corners 1 and 3 and terminate on a line extended through the centres of hoops 5 and 6, and thus measure 13 yards, are known as the A and B baulk- lines respectively.

(f) THE STANDARD SETTING . The peg (see Law 2 (a) ) is set in the centre of the Court. There are six hoops (see Law 2(b) ) which are set parallel to the north and south boundaries; the centres of the two inner hoops are 7 yards to the north and south of the peg; the centres of the four outer hoops are 7 yards from the adjacent boundaries.

(g) PERMITTED TOLERANCE . All court dimensions of 7 yards or more in this law are subject to a tolerance of plus or minus 6 inches, provided that the peg lies on the lines joining the centres of hoops 1 and 3, 2 and 4, and S and 6, and that the baulk-lines still terminate on a line extended through the centres of hoops 5 and 6.

2. Equipment

(a) THE PEG . The peg has two parts. The base has a uniform diameter of 1½ inches and a height of 18 inches above the ground and is made of wood or metal. It must be vertical, firmly fixed and painted white to a height of at least 6 inches above the ground. The extension is about ½ inch in diameter and 6 inches in length and is made of any suitable material. It is designed to hold clips (see Law 2 (d) ) and is fixed detachably to the top of the base. The extension may be temporarily removed if it impedes the striker.

(b) HOOPS

(1) Each hoop is made of round metal of uniform diameter of ½ inch above the ground and painted white. It is 12 inches in height above the ground measured to the top of the crown and must be vertical and firmly fixed. The crown must be straight and at right angles to the uprights, whose inner surfaces must be parallel and not less than 3¾ inches or more than 4 inches apart (but see Law 50(d) for tournament play). Each hoop on a court must have the same dimensions within a tolerance of plus or minus 1/32 inch. In addition, the crown of the first hoop (hoop 1) is painted blue and that of the last hoop (rover) is painted red.
(2) The jaws of a hoop are defined as the space enclosed by the inner surfaces of the uprights and the planes generated by raising a straight edge vertically against both sides of the hoop from the ground to the crown.

(c) BALLS . There are four balls coloured blue, black, red and yellow. Alternative colours, namely green, brown, pink and white, are also permitted. A ball must be 35/8 inches, plus or minus 1/32 inch, in diameter and must weigh 16 ounces, plus or minus 1/4 ounce. When dropped from a height of 60 inches onto a steel plate 1 inch thick and set rigidly in concrete, a ball must rebound to a height of not less than 30 inches and not more than 45 inches. The rebound heights of a set of balls to be used in a game must not differ by more than 3 inches. Faulty or damaged balls may be changed at any time during a game.

(d) CLIPS . There are four clips made of plastic or metal, or any other suitable material, that must be the same colours as the balls used in a game. They are used to indicate the score (see Law 4(e) ) and may be temporarily removed if they impede the striker.

(e) MALLETS.

(1) The end-faces of the head of a mallet must be parallel and identical and, subject to (e)(2) below, may be made of wood or any other non-metallic material. Bevelled edges are not part of the end-faces.
(2) The two ends of the head must have identical playing characteristics and must not give any playing advantage over a head made entirely of wood.
(3) A mallet may not be changed during a turn [see Law 4(d)] unless it has suffered damage affecting use in that turn.

3. Court Accessories

The following accessories may be supplied for guidance convenience and decoration but do not form part of the setting of the court. Accordingly, any accessories that impede the striker may be temporarily removed.

(a) CORNER FLAGS . Flags coloured blue, red, black and yellow may be placed in corners 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. If used, the flags should be mounted on posts about 12 inches high that must touch the boundary but must not intrude into the court.

(b) CORNER PEGS . Eight white corner pegs, measuring ¾ inch in diameter and 3 inches in height above the ground, may be placed on the boundary one yard from each corner flag, measured to the further side of the corner pegs (see Diagram 2). If used, the corner pegs must touch the boundary but must not intrude into the court.

(c) BAULK-LINE MARKERS . A mark or marker may be placed on the boundary to define the east end of the A baulk-line and the west end of the B baulk-line. If a marker is used, it must not intrude into the court.

(d) CHECK-FENCE . A check-fence just high enough to arrest the progress of the balls may be placed around the boundary and about 1 yard outside it.

The corner pegs and the corner flag must touch the actual boundary, namely the inner edge of the definitive border, but must not intrude into the court.

The yard is measured from the corner flag to the further side of each corner peg.

 


Part 2 - Ordinary Singles Play

A. An Outline of the Game

4. An Outline of the Game

(a) SCOPE OF THIS LAW . This law gives a brief outline of the game and the laws of Association Croquet. Those provisions stated in general terms are subject to the detailed laws that follow.

(b) THE OBJECT OF THE GAME . The game is played between two players, of whom one plays the blue and black and the other the red and yellow balls (or green and brown versus pink and white). The object of the game is for each player to make both his balls score 12 hoop points and a peg point, a total of 26 points, before his adversary. A ball scores a hoop point (see Law 14) by passing through the correct hoop in the order 1,2,3,4,5,6, then 1-back, 2-back, 3-back, 4-back, penultimate and rover in the direction shown in Diagram 1. This is also known as running a hoop in order. A ball which has scored all 12 hoop points is known as a rover. It may then score a peg point by hitting the peg and is then said to be pegged out (see Law 15 and, for handicap play, Law 39). A ball that is pegged out is removed from the game.

(c) HOW THE GAME IS PLAYED . The game is played by striking a ball with a mallet (see Laws 31 and 32). The player whose turn it is (see (d) below) is known as the striker, the ball that he strikes as the striker's ball and his other ball as the partner ball. The striker must never strike an adversary's ball and he may strike only one of his two balls during a turn (see Law 28 and, for doubles play, Law 40). By striking the striker's ball the striker may cause any other ball to move and to score a hoop point (see Law 14(e)).When the striker's ball is a rover, it may cause another rover to score a peg point and thus be removed from the game (see Law 15 ).

(d) THE TURN .

(1) The players play alternate turns. A player may elect at the start of a turn to play that turn with either of his balls (see Law 8). He is initially entitled to play one stroke, after which the turn ends, unless in that stroke the striker's ball scores a hoop point for itself or hits another ball.
(2) If the striker's ball scores a hoop point for itself, the striker becomes entitled to play one extra stroke which is known as a continuation stroke (see Laws 4(g) and 21).
(3) If the striker's ball hits another ball, it is said to have roqueted that other ball and the striker becomes entitled to play two extra strokes. The first extra stroke is known as a croquet stroke (see Laws 4(f) and 20) and is played after placing the striker's ball in contact with the roqueted ball (see Law 19). In a croquet stroke the roqueted ball is known as the croqueted ball and the striker is said to take croquet from it. The second extra stroke is a continuation stroke (see Laws 4(g) and 21).
(4) At the start of a turn the striker's ball may roquet each of the other three balls once. However, every time the striker's ball scores a hoop point for itself it may roquet each of the other three balls again. It is therefore possible for the striker to become entitled to play a series of strokes in a turn in which he may cause the striker's ball to score one or more points for itself.

(e) THE SCORE . The score is indicated by the correct position of the clips. At the start of every turn the hoop or peg next in order for each ball carries a clip of the same colour as the ball. When a ball runs such a hoop in order the striker must remove the clip and, at the end of the turn, place it on the appropriate hoop or the peg. For the first six hoops the clip is placed on the crown of the appropriate hoop and for the last six hoops on an upright. When a peg point is scored the clip is removed from the court.

(f) CROQUET STROKE. In a croquet stroke the striker must move or shake the croqueted ball. Failure to do so constitutes a fault (see Law 32) and the turn ends. The turn also ends in a croquet stroke if the croqueted ball is sent off the court, unless it is pegged out in the stroke, or if the striker's ball is sent off the court without making a roquet or scoring a hoop point for itself (see Law 20(c)).

(g) CONTINUATION STROKE. A continuation stroke is an ordinary stroke in which, for example, a further roquet may be made or a point may be scored. Continuation strokes may not be accumulated; thus

(1) if the striker's ball scores a hoop point for itself and then makes a roquet in the same stroke, the striker takes croquet immediately;
(2) if the striker's ball makes a roquet in a croquet stroke, the striker takes croquet immediately;
(3) if the striker's ball scores two hoop points for itself in the same stroke, the striker plays only one continuation stroke;
(4) if the striker's ball scores a hoop point for itself in a croquet stroke, the striker plays only one continuation stroke.

(h) DOUBLE-BANKED GAMES. Two games may be played simultaneously on the same court. The blue, black, red and yellow balls are used in one game and the green, brown, pink and white balls are used in the other game. The players and equipment of one game constitute outside agencies in relation to the other game. (See Law 34(b)(2), and Law 50(e) for tournament and match play).

 


B. General Laws of Play

5. The Toss before the Start of a Game

The winner of the toss decides whether he will take the choice of lead, which includes the right to play second, or the choice of halls. This is known as the right of choice. If he takes the choice of lead his adversary has the choice of balls and vice versa . When a match consists of more than one game the right of choice alternates after the first game.

6. The Start of a Game

At the start of a game, the player entitled to play first plays either of his balls into the game from any point on either baulk-line. At the end of that turn his adversary does likewise. In the third and fourth turns the remaining two balls are similarly played into the game (but see Law 36(d) for advanced and semi-advanced play and Law 38(c) for handicap play).

7. Ball in Play

A ball played under Law 6 may immediately score points and make roquets and is known as a ball in play. Except when it is a ball in hand (see Law 9 ), it continues to be a ball in play until the end of the stroke in which it is pegged out.

8. Option of Striker to Play either Ball

(a) After all four balls have been played into the game under Law 6 , the striker may elect at the start of any subsequent turn to play that turn with either of his balls (but see Law 38(a) for handicap play).

(b) The election is made by

(1) moving a ball before placing it for a croquet stroke (see Laws 16(c)(1) and 18(b) ); or
(2) lifting a ball under Law 13 (or Law 36 in advanced or semi-advanced play); or
(3) playing a stroke.

(c) In each case, the ball so elected becomes the striker's ball for that turn and the striker may not then play with the partner ball. If he does so and the election was made under (b)(1) above, Law 28(a) applies. If the election was made under (b)(2) or (3) above, Law 28(b) applies.

9. Ball in Hand

(a) The striker's ball becomes a ball in hand and ceases to be a ball in play

(1) when it goes off the court (see Law 10 );
(2) at the end of a turn if it comes to rest in the yard-line area (see Law 11 );
(3) when it is lifted under Law 13 (or Law 36 in advanced or semi-advanced play);
(4) at the end of a stroke in which it makes a roquet (see Law 18(a)(3) );
(5) before a croquet stroke when a roquet is deemed to have been made (see Law 16(c) ).

(b) Any other ball becomes a ball in hand and ceases to be a ball in play

(1) when it goes off the court (see Law 10 );
(2) at the end of a stroke if it comes to rest in the yard-line area (see Law 11 );
(3) when it is moved under Law 19(b) .

(c) A ball ceases to be a ball in hand and again becomes a ball in play when the next stroke is played (see Law 31 ).

10. Ball Off the Court

A ball goes off the court as soon as any part of it would touch a straight edge raised vertically from the boundary (see Law 1(a)). It then becomes a ball in hand and an outside agency (see Law 34(b)(2) ).

11. Ball in the Yard-Line Area

At the end of each stroke any ball in the yard-line area other than the striker's ball, which is played from where it lies, becomes a ball in hand. Only at the end of a turn does the striker's ball in the yard-line area become a ball in hand.

12. Replacement of a Ball Off the Court or in the Yard-Line Area

(a) Before the next stroke

(1) any ball off the court, other than the striker's ball entitled to take croquet, is replaced on the yard-line at the point nearest to that at which it went off the court; and
(2) any ball in hand in the yard-line area, other than the striker's ball entitled to take croquet, is replaced on the yard-line at the point nearest to its position in the yard-line area.

A ball replaced on the yard-line is known as a yard-line ball. A ball replaced on a corner spot is also known as a corner hall.

(b) If a ball cannot be so replaced because of the presence of one or more yard-line balls, it is replaced on the yard-line in contact with that ball or one of them on either side at the striker's option. if one of two such yard-line balls is a corner ball, the ball to be replaced is replaced on the yard-line in contact with the corner ball on its unoccupied side.

(c) If a ball cannot be so replaced because of the presence of the striker's ball inside or any ball outside the yard-line area, it is replaced on the yard-line in contact with that other ball. If the ball to be replaced would otherwise he a corner ball it must in addition be replaced on the yard-line as near as possible to the corner spot.

(d) If two or more balls have to be so replaced and the replacement of one will interfere with the replacement of the other, the order of replacement is at the striker's option.

13. Wiring Lift

(a) The striker may lift one of his balls at the start of a turn and play it from any point on either baulk-line if

(1) it is wired from all other balls; and
(2) the adversary is responsible for its position; and
(3) it is not in contact with another ball.

(b) A ball ("the relevant ball") is wired from another ball ("the target ball") if

(1) any part of a hoop or the peg would impede the direct course of any part of the relevant ball towards any part of the target ball; or
(2) any part of a hoop or the peg would impede the swing of the mallet prior to its impact with the relevant ball; or
(3) any part of the relevant ball lies within the jaws of a hoop (see Law 2(b)(2) ).

In (b)(2) above, the swing is impeded if there is any part of the end-face of the mallet with which the striker cannot strike the centre of the relevant ball in order to drive it freely towards any part of the target ball. However, the swing is not impeded merely because a hoop or the peg interferes with the striker's stance.

(c) A player is responsible for the position of any ball moved or shaken as a consequence of his play, including a ball replaced after a fault (see Law 32 ), or which he is deemed to have played under Law 31(d) .

He is not responsible for the position of any ball replaced after invalid play (see Laws 27 , 28 , 30 and 35 ) unless he would have been so responsible before such play or becomes so responsible thereafter.

14. Hoop Point

(a) Subject to Law 18(a)(1) , a ball scores a hoop point by passing through the correct hoop in the order and in the direction shown in Diagram 1. This is also known as running a hoop in order.

(b) The front of a hoop as it is approached by a ball about to run it in order is known as the playing side and the back as the non-playing side. The whole of the ball does not have to pass through the whole of the hoop to score a hoop point because

(1) a ball begins to run a hoop only when the front of the ball can be touched by a straight edge raised vertically against the non-playing side; and
(2) a ball completes the running of a hoop if it comes to rest (see Law 22 ) in a position in which the back of the ball cannot be touched by a straight edge raised vertically against the playing side.

(c) A ball may complete the running of a hoop in two or more turns, but, if it becomes a ball in hand, it must begin to run the hoop afresh.

(d) If a ball from which the striker is taking croquet lies within the jaws of the hoop next in order for the striker's ball, the striker's ball may run that hoop in the croquet stroke provided that it has not begun to run the hoop (see (b)(1) above) when placed in the actual position from which the striker will take croquet.

(e) if the striker's ball causes another ball to score a hoop point, that other ball is said to be peeled through the hoop.

15. Peg Point

(a) Subject to Law 18(a)(1) a ball scores a peg point by hitting the peg in order. Only when the striker's ball has scored all 12 hoop points, and has thus become a rover, can it score a peg point (but see Law 39 for handicap play) or cause another rover to do so, whether directly or through the agency of another ball.

(b) If the striker's ball hits the peg in order and simultaneously makes a roquet, a peg point is scored unless the striker claims the roquet (but see Law 39 for handicap play).

(c) If, at the start of a turn, the striker plays a rover that is in contact with the peg, that ball is pegged out unless it is hit in a direction away from the peg (but see Law 39 for handicap play). Likewise, if the striker's ball is a rover and hits, or causes another ball to hit, another rover that is in contact with the peg, that other rover is pegged out unless it is hit in a direction away from the peg.

(d) A ball that has been pegged out in a stroke remains a ball in play throughout the stroke and, although it may not cause other balls to score hoop or peg points, it may only be picked up or arrested in its course to save time if the state of the game will not be affected thereby.

(e) If a ball is pegged out the striker must remove the ball and the corresponding clip from the court before the next stroke (see Law 30(d) ).

16. Roquet

(a) WHEN A ROQUET MAY BE MADE. At the start of a turn the striker's ball may roquet each of the other three balls once. However, every time the striker's ball scores a hoop point for itself it may roquet each of the other three balls again.

(b) WHEN A ROQUET IS ACTUALLY MADE. A roquet is actually made when the striker's ball hits a ball that may be roqueted, either directly or after hitting a hoop or the peg or a ball that may not be roqueted. However,

(1) if two or more balls that may be roqueted are hit in one stroke, a roquet is deemed only to be made on the ball first hit; if two or more such balls are hit simultaneously, a roquet is deemed only to be made on the ball that the striker nominates as the roqueted ball by taking croquet from it;

(2) if the striker's ball hits the peg in order and simultaneously makes a roquet, Law 15(b) applies;

(3) if the striker's ball scores a hoop point for itself and thereafter in the same stroke hits a ball from which it started in contact, a roquet is deemed not to be made; however, if such balls come to rest in contact, a roquet is deemed to have been made under (c)(2)below.

(4) if the striker's ball hits a ball that may not be roqueted under Laws 16(a) or 17 and then scores a hoop point for itself and thereafter in the same stroke hits the ball again, a roquet is deemed not to be made; however, if such balls come to rest in contact, a roquet is deemed to have been made under (c)(2) below.

(c) WHEN A ROQUET IS DEEMED TO HAVE BEEN MADE. A roquet is deemed to have been made

(1) at the start of a turn if the striker elects to play a ball that is in contact with another ball (but see Law 36 for advanced or semi-advanced play). If the striker elects to play a ball that also forms part of a 3-ball or 4-ball group (see (d) below), a roquet may be deemed to have been made on any ball in the group.

(2) during a turn that the striker is entitled to continue if, except when an actual roquet has been made, the striker's ball is lawfully in contact with a ball that may be roqueted. If the striker's ball also forms part of a 3-ball or 4-ball group, a roquet maybe deemed to have been made on any ball in the group that may be roqueted.

If a roquet may be deemed to have been made on more than one ball, it is deemed only to have been made on the ball that the striker nominates as the roqueted ball by taking croquet from it.

(d)(d) GROUPS OF BALLS. A 3-ball group is formed by three balls, each of which is in contact with at least one other ball and at least one of which is a yard-line ball. A 4-ball group is formed by one ball in contact with a 3- ball group.

17. Hoop and Roquet in the Same Stroke

If, before completing the running of a hoop in order, the striker's ball hits a ball that was clear of the hoop on the non-playing side before the commencement of the stroke and finally completes the running, as defined in Law 14(b)(2) , it is deemed that a hoop point is scored and a roquet is then made. A ball is clear of a hoop if no part of it lies within the jaws of the hoop (see Law 2(b)(2) ).

18. Consequences of a Roquet

(a) If the striker's ball makes a roquet under Laws 16(b) or 17

(1) it cannot thereafter in the same stroke score a hoop point or a peg point for itself (except under Law 17 );
(2) it remains a ball in play throughout the stroke and may therefore cause other balls to score hoop or peg points; accordingly, it may only be picked up or arrested in its course to save time if the state of the game will not be affected thereby;
(3) it becomes a ball in hand at the end of the stroke unless the striker's turn ends either under Law 20(c) or because the roqueted ball is pegged out in the stroke; and
(4) the striker takes croquet under Laws 19 and 20 unless the turn so ends.

(b) If a roquet is deemed to have been made under Law 16(c) the striker takes croquet under Laws 19 and 20 forthwith.

C. Miscellaneous Laws of Play

19. Placing Balls for a Croquet Stroke

(a) To take croquet the striker must place the striker's ball on the ground in contact with the roqueted ball however he chooses provided that the striker's ball is not in contact with any other ball. Subject to (b) below, no other ball may be moved.

(b) If the striker is entitled to take croquet from a ball which forms part of a 3-ball or 4-ball group (see Law 16(d) ) at the start of a turn, or will do so when the striker's ball is placed in accordance with (a) above, all balls other than the roqueted ball, which may not be moved, become balls in hand immediately and are temporarily removed. They are replaced as follows.

(1) 3-BALL GROUPS. The striker must place the striker's ball and the third ball on the ground in contact with the roqueted ball however he chooses provided that the striker's ball is only in contact with the roqueted ball.

(2) 4-BALL GROUPS. The striker must place the striker's ball and one of the remaining balls as in (1) above and must then place the fourth ball on the ground out of contact with the striker's ball but in contact with one or both of the other two balls.

(c) When placing the striker's ball for a croquet stroke, the striker may touch or steady the roqueted ball or apply such pressure to it by hand or foot, but not by mallet, as is reasonably necessary to make it hold its position, provided that its original position and rotational alignment are not finally disturbed.

20. Croquet Stroke

(a) In a croquet stroke the roqueted ball is known as the croqueted ball.

(b) The striker now plays a stroke with the balls placed in accordance with Law 19 and in so doing must play into the croqueted ball and move or shake it (see Law 32(a)(15) ).

(c) In croquet stroke the striker's turn ends if he sends off the court

(1) the croqueted ball, unless it is pegged out in the stroke; or
(2) the striker's ball, unless it makes a roquet or scores a hoop point for itself in the stroke.

21. Continuation Stroke

After the striker's ball scores a hoop point for itself or after a croquet stroke the striker becomes entitled to play a continuation stroke (see Law 4(g) ) unless he is entitled to take croquet immediately or his turn ends under Law 20(c) .

22. Ball Moving between Strokes

(a) A ball actually at rest or deemed to be at rest that moves or apparently scores a point for itself between strokes is replaced immediately and any such point is not scored.

(b) A ball is deemed to be at rest if it appears to be at rest and

(1) its position has been agreed upon by the striker and the adversary; or
(2) its position has been adjudicated upon by a referee; or
(3) the striker has taken his stance for the next stroke; or
(4) the striker has indicated that his turn has ended.

23. Imperfections on the Surface of the Court

(a) Loose impediments may be removed. Examples include worm casts, twigs, leaves, nuts, refuse and similar material.

(b) The striker may not move any ball on account of an inequality on the surface of the court unless the inequality constitutes special damage, namely a hole on a corner spot or an unrepaired or imperfectly repaired hole or scar. The normal hazards of an indifferent court are not special damage. However, subject to Law 45(d) , balls may be moved no more than is necessary to avoid special damage but never to the advantage of the striker.

(c) When any ball is so moved, the striker must also move any other ball likely to be affected by the next stroke so as to maintain their relative positions, provided that such a ball is not in a critical position. If such a ball is not affected by that stroke and two further strokes, it must be replaced.

(d) Examples of critical positions include positions in or near hoops, wired positions and some positions on or near the yard-line.

(e) Subject to Law 45(d) , the striker may wipe any ball at any time.

24. Interference with a Stroke

(a) Subject to Law 45(d) , if any fixed obstacle or change of level outside the court is likely to impede the playing of the next stroke, the striker may move the striker's ball no more than is necessary to allow a free swing of the mallet.

(b) When the striker's ball is so moved, the striker must also move any other ball likely to be affected by the next stroke so as to maintain their relative positions, provided that such a ball is not in a critical position (see Law 23(d) ). If such a ball is not affected by that stroke and two further strokes, it must be replaced.

25. Local Laws

Clubs or persons controlling courts may submit local laws to suit particular needs to the appropriate Croquet Council for approval. if a local law is so approved, play must be in accordance therewith.

D. Errors and Interference with Play

26. Definitions

(a) FORESTALLING PLAY. The adversary is said to forestall play when he observes that the striker has committed or is about to commit an error or is about to play a questionable stroke (see Law 45(c) ) and requests him to cease play until it can be corrected, investigated or watched. The adversary may forestall play by word or gesture. After play has been forestalled it must cease until the matter about to be raised is settled. If the striker continues to play nonetheless, Law 27 applies except that the striker's turn does not necessarily end.

(b) LIMIT OF CLAIMS. The limit of claims is the end of the period within which an error can be rectified under these laws. There may be a restricted remedy (see Laws 27(b) and 28(b)(2) ) if an error is discovered after the limit of claims but before the end of the game. Limits of claims are given in detail in the laws concerned and are summarised at the end.

(c) CONDONING. An error is condoned if it is not discovered before the limit of claims.

(d) START AND END OF A TURN. A turn starts as soon as the previous turn has ended. A turn ends when the striker quits the court in the belief that his turn has ended (see Law 50(c)(3) for tournament and match play).

(e) END OF A GAME. A game ends when the players quit the court in the belief that it has ended but, if they do not quit the court, it ends when they start the next game on the same court.

(f) COMPOUND ERRORS. If the adversary forestalls play after the striker commits

(1) more than one error in the same stroke, only the first of the applicable laws to appear below applies; or
(2) a second error within the limit of claims of an earlier error, only the law applicable to the first error applies.

However, in addition, if the striker commits an error under Law 30 (a), (b) or (c) in the same stroke as, or followed by, a fault under Law 32 , the turn ends.

27. Playing when Not Entitled to Do So

(a) If a player plays a stroke when not entitled to play and the error is not condoned, that stroke and any subsequent strokes are invalid, no points may be scored for any ball thereby, the balls are replaced in their lawful positions before the first stroke in error and the turn ends. (See Law 38(h)(1) for handicap play).

(b) The error is condoned if it is not discovered before the first stroke of the adversary's next turn. In that event, the first stroke in error and any subsequent strokes are deemed to be valid and the balls are not replaced but the only points scored are points scored in order by peeling an adversary's ball. (See Law 38(h)(1) for handicap play).

28. Playing a Wrong Ball

(a) PLAYING THE PARTNER BALL AT THE START OF A TURN

(1) If the striker, having elected to play with one of the balls of his side under Law 8(b)(1) , plays with the partner ball and the error is not condoned, that stroke is invalid, no points may be scored thereby, the balls are replaced in their lawful positions and the striker continues his turn without penalty in accordance with Law 8(c) .
(2) The error is condoned if it is not discovered before the second stroke of the striker's turn. In that event, the partner ball is deemed to be the striker's ball for that turn.

(b) ALL OTHER CASES

(1) In all other cases, if the striker plays a wrong ball and the error is not condoned, that stroke and any subsequent strokes are invalid, no points may be scored for any ball thereby, the balls are replaced in their lawful positions before the first stroke in error and the turn ends. If the first stroke in error should have been a croquet stroke, the striker's ball is then placed in any lawful position to take croquet provided that it is not within the yard-line area. If the error is committed in the first stroke of one of the first four turns of the game (see Law 38(c) for handicap play), the correct ball is placed at any point on either baulk-line as the striker chooses. (See Law 38(h)(2) for handicap play).
(2) The error is condoned if it is not discovered before the first stroke of the adversary's next turn. In that event, the first stroke in error and any subsequent strokes are deemed to be valid and the halls are not replaced but the only points scored are

(A) when the striker plays any ball in error, points scored in order for any other ball by peeling; and
(B) when the striker plays the partner ball in error, points scored in order for it (but see Law 40(d) for doubles play).

(c) PLAYER UNABLE TO PLAY CORRECT BALL. If, as a result of Law 28(b) , the player of the third or fourth turn of the game finds that both his balls have already been played onto the court, the game shall be restarted (See Law 38(h)(3) for handicap play).

29. Playing when a Ball is Misplaced - General Rule

Subject to Law 49(b) , if the adversary observes that the striker is about to play a stroke when any ball is misplaced, he must forestall play immediately. In the instances specified below this is his only remedy. If he fails to do so the stroke is deemed to be valid subject to Law 32 . If a misplaced ball is not affected by the stroke, it must be properly placed before the next stroke. The instances referred to above are

(a) playing without first replacing any ball irregularly moved after the end of the preceding stroke;

(b) playing the striker's ball when it has been wrongly brought onto the yard-line;

(c) playing when a ball has been wrongly left off the court or in the yard-line area;

(d) playing the striker's ball from some other position when it should be played from a baulk-line;

(e) playing a croquet stroke when the striker's ball is not touching the croqueted ball or is touching another ball; and

(f) all other cases except those dealt with in Law 30 .

30. Playing when a Ball is Misplaced - Exceptions

(a) TAKING CROQUET FROM A WRONG BALL

(1) If the striker, being entitled to take croquet, takes croquet from a wrong ball and the error is not condoned, the adversary may elect a replay. If he does so, the first stroke in error and any subsequent stroke are invalid, no points may be scored for any ball thereby, the balls are replaced in their lawful positions before the first stroke in error and the striker continues his turn without penalty by taking croquet from the correct ball. Otherwise, the first stroke in error and any subsequent stroke are deemed to be valid, the croqueted ball is interchanged with the correct ball and the striker continues his turn without penalty as if he had taken croquet from the correct ball.
(2) The error is condoned if it is not discovered before the next stroke but one of the striker's turn. In that event, the first stroke in error and any subsequent stroke are deemed to be valid, the balls are not replaced or interchanged and play continues as if the roquet preceding the error has been made on the croqueted ball.

(b) TAKING CROQUET WHEN NOT ENTITLED TO DO SO

(1) If the striker takes croquet from a ball that has not been roqueted and the error is not condoned, the first stroke in error and any subsequent stroke are invalid, no points may be scored for any ball thereby, the balls are replaced in their lawful positions before the first stroke in error and the striker continues his turn without penalty.
(2) The error is condoned if it is not discovered before the next stroke but one of the striker's turn. In that event, the first stroke in error and any subsequent stroke are deemed to be valid, the balls are not replaced and play continues as if a roquet had been made on the croqueted ball.

(c) FAILING TO TAKE CROQUET WHEN ENTITLED TO DO SO

(1) If the striker, being entitled to take croquet, fails to do so and the error is not condoned, the first stroke in error and any subsequent stroke are invalid, no points may be scored for any ball thereby, the balls are replaced in their lawful positions before the first stroke in error and the striker continues his turn without penalty by taking croquet.
(2) The error is condoned if it is not discovered before the next stroke but one of the striker's turn. In that event, the first stroke in error and any subsequent stroke are deemed to be valid, the halls are not replaced and play continues as if the roquet preceding the error had not been made but the striker had remained entitled to play.

(d) WRONGLY REMOVING OR FAILING TO REMOVE A BALL FROM THE GAME

(1) If a ball that has not been pegged out is removed from the court or if a ball that has been pegged out is left in play and the error is not condoned all subsequent play is invalid, no points may be scored for any ball thereby, the balls are replaced in their lawful positions before the first stroke in error and the player entitled to play when the error was committed continues his turn without penalty. (See Law 38(h)(4) for handicap play and Law 50(c)(1) for tournament play).
(2) The error is condoned if it is not discovered before the end of the game (see Law 26(d) ).

31. Definition of a Stroke and the Striking Period

(a) Subject to (b) below, a stroke is any movement of the mallet made with intent to hit the ball or, after the striker has begun to strike, any contact between mallet and ball.

(b) A stroke and the striking period begin when the striker begins to swing the mallet with intent to hit the ball. But if the striker deliberately checks the mallet before

(1) there has occurred any contact between mallet and ball, or
(2) a stroke is deemed to be played under (d)(l) below, or
(3) a fault has been committed,

a stroke is deemed not to have been played and the stroke and the striking period do not begin again until the striker begins again to swing the mallet with intent to hit the ball.

(c) The striking period ends when the striker has quitted his stance under control. After this period no fault can be committed under Law 32 . The stroke ends when all balls moved in consequence thereof have come to rest or have left the court.

(d) A stroke is deemed to be played if the striker

(1) misses the ball; or
(2) announces his intention to leave it where it lies.

In each case, he thereby becomes responsible for its position for the purpose of Law 13 (a)(2).

32. Faults

(a) A fault is committed during the striking period if the striker

(1) touches the head of the mallet with his hand;
(2) causes or attempts to cause the mallet to strike the ball by kicking or hitting the mallet;
(3) rests the shaft of the mallet or a hand or arm on the ground;
(4) rests the shaft of the mallet or a hand or arm directly connected with the stroke against any part of his legs or feet;
(5) strikes the striker's ball with any part of the mallet other than an end-face (see Law 2(e) ); an accidental mis-hit is not a fault under this sub-law unless the stroke is hampered (see (e) (1) below);
(6) plays a stroke without first striking the striker's ball audibly or distinctly;
(7) in a croquet stroke, or in a continuation stroke in which the balls start in contact, pushes or pulls the striker's ball (see (e)(2) below) after the balls have parted contact;
(8) in a single ball stroke, pushes or pulls the striker's ball (see (e)(2) below);
(9) strikes the striker's ball audibly or distinctly twice in the same stroke or maintains contact between mallet and ball after the striker's ball has hit another ball; a second hit or maintenance of contact caused by making a roquet or pegging out the striker's ball or by interference by a ball pegged out in the stroke is not a fault under this sub-law;
(10) moves or shakes a ball at rest by hitting a hoop or the peg with the mallet or any part of his body or clothes;
(11) strikes the striker's ball so as to cause it to touch a hoop or (unless the striker's ball is pegged out in the stroke) the peg when still in contact with the mallet;
(12) strikes the striker's ball, when it lies in contact with a hoop or (unless the striker's ball is pegged out in the stroke) the peg, otherwise than in a direction away there from;
(13) touches a ball, other than the striker's ball, with the mallet or allows the striker's ball to re-touch the mallet;
(14) touches any ball with any part of his body or clothes;
(15) in a croquet stroke, plays away from or fails to move or shake the croqueted ball;
(16) deliberately plays a stroke that is likely to cause and does cause substantial damage to the court by the mallet; substantial damage is damage capable of affecting a subsequent shot played over the damaged area, normally involving the breaking of the surface of the court.

(b) If a fault is committed in a croquet stroke and the striker's turn would otherwise end under Law 20(c) , the adversary may waive the fault before the next stroke is played. In that event, the fault is deemed not to have been committed, any points scored for any ball in that stroke remain valid and the turn ends under Law 20(c) .

(c) If the striker commits a fault and it is not waived or condoned, the balls are replaced in their lawful positions before the stroke in which the fault was committed, no point may be scored for any ball in that stroke or any subsequent stroke and the turn ends.

(d) The fault is condoned if it is not discovered before the next stroke but one of the striker's turn. In that event, the fault is deemed not to have been committed.

(e)

(1) A stroke is hampered if it requires special care because of the proximity of a hoop or the peg or another ball.
(2) The striker pushes or pulls the striker's ball if he maintains contact between mallet and ball for an appreciable period or accelerates the mallet head if it has been checked after its initial contact with the ball. A push is played away from the body. A pull is played towards the body.

33. Interference with a Ball between Strokes

A ball at rest (see Law 22 ) that is moved between strokes is replaced without penalty.

34. Interference with a Ball During a Stroke

(a) INTERFERENCE BY THE STRIKER. If the striker interferes with a ball after the end of the striking period but before the end of the stroke there is no penalty and (c) below applies.

(b) INTERFERENCE BY THE ADVERSARY OR AN OUTSIDE AGENCY

(1) If the adversary or an outside agency interferes with a ball during a stroke and materially affects the outcome thereof, the stroke is replayed. In all other cases (c) below applies.
(2) An outside agency is any agency unconnected with the game. Examples include animals, spectators, the players or equipment from another game, a ball off the court and other stray objects, but not weather.

(c) REPLACEMENT OF BALL AFTER INTERFERENCE. If the ball was at rest when interfered with, it is replaced. If it was moving, it is placed where it would otherwise have come to rest. After interference a ball cannot make a roquet, be roqueted or score a point or cause another ball to move or score a point.

(d) INTERFERENCE WITH A PEGGED-OUT BALL OR A BALL THAT HAS MADE A ROQUET. The provisions of Laws 15(d) or 18(a)(2) apply respectively.

35. Playing when Misled

(a)

(1) If the striker fails to place any clip correctly at the end of a turn, thereby leading the adversary into a line of play that he would not otherwise have adopted, and the error is not condoned, all play after the adversary was first misled is invalid, no points may be scored for any ball thereby, the balls are replaced in their lawful positions at that time and the adversary continues his turn accordingly. If the adversary was misled on the first stroke of the turn he may play with either of his balls in the replay. (See Law 38(g) for handicap play and Law 40(e) for doubles play).
(2) The error is condoned if it is not discovered before the second stroke of the offender's next turn. In that event, the clip is placed correctly and the striker continues his turn without penalty.

(b) If the striker plays any stroke or series of strokes in consequence of any false information concerning the state of the game supplied by the adversary he is entitled to a replay in accordance with (a) above.

(c) If any player sees a misplaced clip he must immediately call attention to it and it must then be properly placed. It is the duty of both players to ensure that the clips are properly placed during the game.


Part 3 - Other Forms of Play

A. Advanced Singles Play

36. Optional Lift or Contact

(a) If the striker's ball scored 1-back or 4-back for itself in the preceding turn, the adversary may start his turn, subject to (c) below,

(1) by playing as the balls lie; or
(2) by lifting either of his balls, even if it is in contact with one or more balls, and playing it from any point on either baulk-line.

(b) If the striker's ball scored 1-back and 4-back for itself in the preceding turn and its partner ball had not scored 1-back before that turn, the adversary may start his turn, subject to (c) below,

(1) as in (a)(l) or (a)(2) above; or
(2) by lifting either of his balls, even if it is in contact with one or more balls, placing it in contact with any ball and taking croquet forthwith.

(c) A player who has pegged out any ball during the game is not entitled to a lift or contact under this law.

(d) This law is subject to the provision of Law 6 which requires the partner balls to be played in the third and fourth turns of the game, but (b)(2) above overrides the provision of Law 6 which requires such balls to be played from a baulk-line.


B. Semi-Advanced Singles Play

37. Optional Lift or Contact

Law 36 applies with the omission of the words "or 4-back" in (a) thereof.

 


C. Handicap Singles Play

38. Bisques

(a) DEFINITION. A bisque is an extra turn given in handicap play and can only be played by the striker with the striker's ball of the preceding turn. A half-bisque is a restricted extra turn in which no point can be scored for any ball.

(b) NUMBER TO BE GIVEN. The number of bisques to be given by the lower-handicapped player to the higher is the difference between their handicaps. A bisque may not be split into two half-bisques.

(c) WHEN A BISQUE MAY BE PLAYED. The player receiving a half-bisque or one or more bisques may play it or them at any time of the game whatsoever subject to Law 50(c)(2) , and, if receiving more than one, in succession. This law overrides Law 6 but reference in Law 28 to the first four turns of the game does not include half-bisques or bisques.

(d) INDICATION OF INTENTION TO PLAY A HALF-BISQUE OR BISQUE.

(1) At the conclusion of a turn the striker must give a clear indication of his intention before playing a half-bisque or bisque. If he fails to do so but continues to play, Law 27 applies. Once the error has been rectified, the striker may then play a half-bisque or bisque.
(2) If the striker is entitled to play either a half-bisque or a bisque and indicates an intention of playing one or the other, he may change his mind at any time before playing a stroke provided that he indicates his revised intention accordingly. If he indicates an intention of playing one or the other without specifying which, he is deemed to have indicated an intention of playing a bisque.
(3) If the striker has played all the strokes to which he is entitled and indicates that he is not going to play a half-bisque or bisque, either by words or by quitting the court, he may not change his mind. The adversary must not start his turn until the striker has so indicated.

(e) THE ADVERSARY'S DUTY. The adversary must forestall play if he observes that the striker is about to play a half- bisque or bisque before he has played all the strokes that he is entitled to play. If the adversary fails to do so the striker is deemed to have played the half-bisque or bisque validly.

(f) PLAYING A WRONG BALL . Notwithstanding (a) above, if the striker plays a wrong ball under Law 28(b) in the first stroke of a non-bisque turn and the error is not condoned, he may play with either of his balls if he then elects to play a half-bisque or bisque.

(g) PLAYING WHEN MISLED . The expression "line of play" in Law 35(a)(1) includes a decision whether or not to play a half-bisque or bisque.

(h) RESTORATION OF BISQUES AFTER CERTAIN ERRORS.

(1) Law 27 . If the striker plays when not entitled to do so, any half bisque or bisque played after the first stroke in error is restored if the error is discovered before the end of the game.
(2) Law 28(b) . If the striker plays a wrong ball, any half-bisque or bisque played after the first stroke in error is only restored if the error is discovered before the first stroke of the adversary's next turn.
(3) Law 28(c) . If a game is restarted under Law 28(c) , any half bisque or bisque played by either player is restored.
(4) Law 30(d) . If a ball that has not been pegged out is removed from the court or a ball that bas been pegged out is left in play, any half- bisque or bisque played after the first stroke in error is restored if the error is discovered before the end of the game.


C. Handicap Singles Play

39. Pegging Out

The striker may not peg out the striker's ball until the partner ball bas become a rover unless an adversary ball has already been pegged out. If he does so and removes the striker's ball from the court, Law 30(d) applies.

 


D. Doubles Play

40. General

(a) AN OUTLINE OF THE GAME . The game is played between two sides, each of two players. One player of each side plays throughout with one ball of the side and bis partner with the other.

(b) ASSISTANCE TO PARTNER . A player may advise his partner and assist in the playing of a stroke by indicating the direction in which the mallet is to be swung and by placing the balls for a croquet stroke. However, When the stroke is actually played, he must stand well clear of the striker or any spot which might assist the striker in gauging the strength or direction of the stroke.

(c) MODIFICATION OF TERMS . In these laws "partner's ball" is substituted for "partner ball" and, where appropriate, including Law 34 , the word "player" includes "side" and the word "striker" includes "the striker's partner .

(d) PLAYING A WRONG BALL . Laws 28(a) and (b)(2)(b) do not apply.

(e) PLAYING WHEN MISLED . If a side is entitled to a replay from the start of a turn under Law 35 , either player may play.

 


D. Doubles Play

41. Ordinary Doubles Play

When a game is played under the conditions of ordinary doubles play, the laws of ordinary singles play apply subject to Law 40.

 


D. Doubles Play

42. Advanced and Semi-Advanced Doubles Play

When a game is played under the conditions of advanced or semi-advanced doubles play, the laws of ordinary doubles play apply subject to Law 36 or 37 respectively.

 


D. Doubles Play

43. Handicap Doubles Play

When a game is played under the conditions of handicap doubles play, the laws of ordinary doubles play apply subject to Laws 38 and 39 and the following additional Laws.

(a) NUMBER OF BISQUES TO BE GIVEN . Law 38(b) does not apply. The number of bisques to be given by the lower-handicapped side to the higher is half the difference between their aggregate handicaps. A fraction of a bisque above a half is counted as one bisque, a fraction below a half as a half-bisque.

(b) PLAYING A WRONG BALL . Law 38(f) does not apply. If the striker plays a wrong ball under Law 28(b) in the first stroke of a non-bisque turn and the error is not condoned, either he or bis partner may play a half-bisque or bisque thereafter.

(c) PEELS . The striker may not peel his partner's ball through more than four hoops (see Law 55(b) for modified games).


Part 4 - Customs of the Game

44. The State of the Game

A player is entitled to ask his adversary about the state of the game at all times. Questions concerning the correct positions of the balls or clips, whether an error has been committed, which player is responsible for the position of a ball, whether a ball has been hit or has run a hoop in order or is in a position to do so and any similar matters relate to the state of the game.

45. Referees of the Game

(a) THE PLAYERS AS JOINT REFEREES OF THE GAME . The players act as referees of the game in the absence of a referee in charge. However, the adversary is not obliged to watch the game and if he fails to do so the striker is the sole referee for that period. In doubles play, all four players act as referees of the game.

(b) CERTAIN SPECIFIED DUTIES OF A REFEREE OF THE GAME . As a referee of the game the striker must immediately announce any error he believes or suspects he may have committed. Likewise, the adversary must immediately draw attention to any error he observes, subject to Law 49(b) , notwithstanding that it may be to his disadvantage. Further similar but not exhaustive examples are: if the adversary observes the striker about to leave the court wrongly believing that his turn has ended, he must inform him that he must complete his turn by playing another stroke or deeming it to have been played; in handicap play, if the striker announces his intention of playing a half-bisque or bisque before his previous turn has ended, the adversary must similarly inform him (see Law 38(e) ); a player must immediately call attention to a misplaced clip (see Law 35(c) ); a player must on request give the adversary any information concerning the state of the game (see Law 44 ).

(c) QUESTIONABLE STROKES . If the striker suspects that either the fairness or the effect of his next stroke may be doubtful, that stroke is a questionable stroke. He must consult the adversary before playing and the stroke must then be specially watched, preferably by a referee or other independent person if available, or, failing these, by the adversary. It is the striker's duty to take the initiative in this respect but if he fails to do so the adversary should forestall play, and Law 26(a) then applies.

(d) CONSULTING THE ADVERSARY . The striker must not test whether a ball has run a hoop in order by placing an object against the hoop without first consulting the adversary. The test may then be carried out in his presence or, if either so desires, by a referee or other independent person if available. The same principle applies to testing whether a ball is in position to run a hoop in order; whether a ball is off the court; whether the striker is entitled to a wiring lift; whether a ball may be moved under Laws 23 or 24 ; or whether a ball may be wiped under Law 23(e) if its position is critical.

(e) THE STRIKER AS THE ACTIVE REFEREE The adversary must not follow the striker around the court and should allow most decisions to be made by the striker without reference to himself, as the striker is usually in a better position to give a correct decision. If, however, a close decision has to be made and the adversary is in at least as good a position to give that decision, the striker must seek confirmation of his opinion before continuing to play.

(f) WHEN THE PLAYERS' OPINIONS DIFFER If a ball has to be replaced because of the carelessness of a player, the offender should normally defer to the opinion of the other. When the question is whether a ball has been hit or has moved, the positive opinion is generally to be preferred to the negative opinion. If there are any reliable witnesses present the players should agree to consult them to resolve any differences but no player may consult a witness without the express permission of the other.

46. Interruption of the Striker and Presence on Court

(a) The adversary must not interrupt the striker except to discharge his duty as a referee of the game.

(b) A player must not ordinarily remain on the court when his adversary is playing or move onto it until the turn has ended and, in handicap play, until his adversary has indicated that he does not intend to take a half-bisque or bisque.

47. Replacing Yard-Line Balls

The striker must replace yard-line balls with his back to the court and take special care to ensure that such replacement is accurate

48. Expedition in Play

(a) The striker must position the balls and play his strokes with reasonable despatch. In time-limited games the adversary should anticipate as far as possible with which ball he will play so that he may waste no time approaching it at the start of his turn. In handicap play, the striker must indicate at the earliest opportunity whether or not he intends to play a half-bisque or bisque. In doubles play, time must not be wasted in prolonged discussion.

(b) The striker may not ask a referee to test whether or not one ball is wired from another unless he is claiming a wiring lift in the turn about to be played. In the interests of expedition he must rely on an unaided ocular test.

49. Advice and Aids

(a) A player is not entitled to receive advice from anyone, except his partner in doubles play, and should not take advantage of unsolicited information or advice.

(b) The adversary must not warn the striker that he is about to run a wrong hoop or, unless Law 28(a) will apply, that he is about to play a wrong ball. In a double-banked game, playing with a ball of the other game does not constitute playing a wrong ball and the adversary should forestall play.

(c) The striker may not make use of technical assistance from books or notes or artificial aids such as coins to assist him in placing a ball for a stroke, except in connection with its replacement under Laws 23 or 24.

(d) No mark or marker may be made or placed inside or outside the court to assist the striker in gauging the strength or direction of a stroke.

(e) During a game a ball may not be used as a trial ball for any purpose.

50. Tournament and Match Play

In tournaments and matches the following additional laws apply.

(a) QUESTIONABLE STROKES . A referee must always be called before a questionable stroke is played and to decide all disputes. If both the striker and the adversary fail to call a referee before what the adversary should have recognised as a questionable stroke, the adversary may not appeal but should request the striker to take the initiative in calling a referee when another questionable stroke is about to be played.

(b) REPEATED FAULTS . If the adversary believes that the striker is repeatedly committing faults in strokes that would not ordinarily require the presence of a referee, he should inform the striker and call a referee to watch a stroke or series of strokes or to take charge of the game temporarily. The striker has no justification for taking offence at this procedure as players may genuinely differ as to what is permitted under Law 32 .

(c) TIME LIMITED GAMES

(1) Law 30(d)(1) . If the provisions of Law 30(d)(1) apply, any time lost is restored.
(2) HANDICAP PLAY . Law 38(c) applies subject to any restrictions in the Regulations for Tournaments (see Regulation 13(d)).
(3) THE START AND END OF A TURN . Law 26(d) applies subject to any provisions in the Regulations for Tournaments governing time- limits (see Regulation 13(c)(2)).

(d) HOOP DIMENSIONS . The distance between the inner surfaces of the uprights must be 3¾ inches plus or minus 1/32 inch. However, in specially advertised events this dimension may be reduced to 311/16 inches with an upward tolerance of 1/32 inch.

(e) DOUBLE-BANKED GAMES . Double-banked games are additionally subject to any provisions in the Regulations for Tournaments governing double-banked games (see Appendix 2).

51. Emergency Law

Any infringement of these laws for which no penalty is prescribed or any situation that does not appear to be covered by these laws must be dealt with as best meets the justice of the case.

Part 5 - Modified Games

52. Modified Games

The standard game of 26 points may be modified as follows.

(a) 22 POINT GAME. The game is started with all the clips on hoop 3.
(b) 18 POINT GAME. The following variations are permitted.

(1) The game is started with all the clips on hoop 5.
(2) The game is started with all the clips on hoop 1 and the peg point is the next point in order after 2-back.
(3) The standard setting is modified by removing the centre hoops; the game is started with all the clips on hoop 1, 1-back is the next point in order after hoop 4 and the peg point is the next point in order after 4-back.
(4) The game is started with all the clips on hoop 1 but as soon as one of the balls of a side runs or is peeled through hoop 1 in order, 3-back becomes the next hoop in order for its partner ball and the appropriate clip is placed on 3-back immediately. This variation is for singles play only.

(c) 14 POINT GAME. The game is started with all the clips on hoop 1 and the peg point is the next point in order after hoop 6.

53. Advanced Play in Modified Games

Law 36 applies with the omission of Law 36(b). However, in certain of the variations set out in Law 52, the following hoops are substituted for 1-back and 4-back in Law 36(a).

(a) 18 POINT GAME

Law 52(b)(2). Hoop 4 and hoop 6;
Law 52(b)(3). Hoop 4 and 2-back.

(b) 14 POINT GAME

Law 52(c). Hoop 4 only.

54. Semi-Advanced Play in Modified Games

Law 36 applies with the omission of Law 36(b) and the words "or 4-back" in Law 36(a). In addition, in the variations listed in Law 53, hoop 4 is substituted for 1-back.

55. Handicap Play in Modified Games

(a) BISQUES. The number of bisques to be given in a modified game is the number that would be given under Law 38(b) in singles play or under Law 43(a) in doubles play (before rounding) scaled down in accordance with Schedule 1.
(b) PEELS. In handicap doubles play, Law 43(c) is modified as follows.

(1) 22 or 18 point games: three hoops;
(2) 14 point games: two hoops.

56. Smaller Court

(a) SMALLER COURTS OF STANDARD PROPORTIONS

(1) DIMENSIONS. The standard length unit is 7 yards. If the available area is too small to accommodate a standard court, a smaller court may be laid out in accordance with Part 1 of these laws by retaining the proportions of five length units by four length units and using a smaller length unit.
(2) BAULK-LINES. Law 1(e) applies with a reduced length for each baulk-line.
(3) PERMITTED TOLERANCE. The tolerance specified in Law 1(g) for the standard court is retained for a modified court.

(b) SMALLER COURTS OF OTHER PROPORTIONS. The appropriate Croquet Council has power to approve other settings and dimensions for smaller courts.

Appendix 1

Metric Equivalents of Standard Dimensions

  IMPERIAL METRIC
LAW SUBJECT UNITS EQUIVALENTS
 
1 THE STANDARD
COURT 35 yds 32.0 m
  28 yds 25.6 m
  13 yds 11.9 m
  7 yds 6.4 m
  1 yd 0.9 m
2(a) THE PEG 18 " 450 mm
  6 " 150 mm
  1½ " 38 mm
2(b) HOOPS 12 " 300 mm
  4 " 100 mm
  3¾ " 95 mm
 

311/16 "

93.5 mm
 

1/8"

16 mm
 

1/32"

0.8 mm
2(c) BALLS

35/8 "

92 mm
 

11/32 "

0.8 mm
  16 oz 454 g
  1/4 oz 7 g
3(a) CORNER FLAGS 12 " 300 mm
3(b) CORNER PEGS 3 " 75 mm
  ¾" 19 mm

Appendix 2

Guide to Conduct in Double-Banked Games

A. Customs

1 . General

The players of each game should be aware of the course of play in the other game at all times, but especially when stepping onto the court. In particular, they should not cross another player's line of aim.

2. Expedition in Play

(Law 48)

Players should be especially conscious of the need for expedition in play. In doubles play, mid-court conferences should be avoided if possible.

3. Precedence

(a) If one player is making a break, he should normally be given precedence.
(b) If two players are approaching the same hoop and both are making breaks, precedence should normally be given to the player who is most likely to get clear of the hoop first (subject to 4(c) below).
(c) If two players are approaching the same hoop but neither is making a break, precedence should normally be given to the player who has made the first roquet towards the hoop.

4. Marking

(a) All players should carry ball markers (e.g. small coins).
(b) If a ball from the other game is not in a critical position and might interfere with a player's next stroke, its position may be marked and it may be removed temporarily with the permission of the players of the other game. Examples of critical positions include positions in or near hoops, wired positions and some positions on or near the yard-line.
(c) If a ball from the other game is in a critical position and might so interfere, the player should normally interrupt his turn until it has been removed in the normal course of play in the other game.
(d) In doubles play the striker's partner should at all times be ready to mark balls in either game.

B. Laws

5. Interference by Balls or Players of the Other Game

(a) If a ball of one game has finally come to rest and is moved by a ball or player of the other game, it is replaced without penalty under Law 33.
(b) If a ball of one game is interfered with during a stroke by a ball or player of the other game, Law 34(b) applies.

C. Management

6. Start of Games

The Manager may direct play in a second game to start as soon as the fifth turn has been played in the first game or after a specified length of time.

7. Timed Games

(a) The Manager may allow extra time for double-banked games under Regulation 12(f)(9).
(b) The Manager may temporarily suspend play in a game when the other game on the same court is within five minutes of the time limit.


Appendix 3

Full Bisque Handicap Play

When a game is played under the conditions of full bisque handicap play, the laws of handicap play apply subject to the following modifications.

1. The Base Handicap

The base handicap is scratch unless agreed or directed to be greater than scratch.

2. Singles Play

If both players have handicaps that are greater than the base handicap, the first sentence of Law 38(b) does not apply and each player receives a number of bisques equal to the difference between his handicap and the base handicap.

3. Doubles Play

If both sides have aggregate handicaps that are greater than twice the base handicap, the second sentence of Law 43(a) does not apply and each side receives a number of bisques equal to half the difference between its aggregate handicap and twice the base handicap. A player whose handicap is lower than the base handicap may play a half bisque but may not play a bisque.


Appendix 4

Alternate Stroke Handicap Doubles Play

When a handicap doubles game is played under the conditions of alternate stroke play, the laws of handicap doubles play apply subject to the following modifications.

1. Non-Application of Certain Laws

Laws 38(f), 40(a) and 43(b) do not apply.

2. Alternate Stroke Play

Subject to Paragraph 3 below, the players of each side play alternate strokes throughout the game and from turn to turn, whether such turns are ordinary turns, half-bisques or bisques. Thus the partner of the player who played the last stroke of a turn plays the first stroke of his side's next turn.

3. Errors

(a) PLAYING OUT OF SEQUENCE

(1) If an adversary observes that the striker is about to play out of sequence, he must forestall play immediately.
(2) If the striker plays out of sequence and the error is not condoned, that stroke and any subsequent stroke are invalid, no points can be scored thereby, the balls are replaced in their lawful positions before the first stroke in error, any half-bisque or bisque played after the error is restored and the correct player plays without penalty.
(3) The error is condoned if it is not discovered before the offending side has played two further strokes or before the first stroke of the other side's next turn. In that event, the first stroke in error and any subsequent stroke are deemed to be valid, all points scored thereby remain valid and play continues according to the sequence thereby established.

(b) OTHER INVALID PLAY. If balls are replaced after invalid play (see Laws 27, 28, 30 and 35), the player who played the first stroke in error plays the first stroke of his sides next turn.
(c) FAULTS. If the balls are replaced after a fault, the partner of the player who committed the fault plays the first stroke of his side's next turn.


Appendix 5

Short Croquet

Short Croquet is a shortened version of the game, primarily intended for play on smaller lawns. The laws of handicap singles play apply, subject to the following modifications.

1. The Court

The standard court is a rectangle measuring 24 by 16 yards. The four outer hoops are 4 yards from the adjacent boundaries, the two inner hoops are 6 yards north and south of the peg.

2. The Course

The game is 14 points; six hoops and the peg (see Law 52(c)).

3 . The Handicapping System

Each player has to make the number of mandatory peels corresponding to his normal handicap, or he becomes entitled to the number of bisques, given in a table published by the Council from time to time. If both players are entitled to bisques, each player receives the appropriate number of bisques as in full bisque handicap play.

4. Mandatory Peels

Either ball of a side may be peeled by its partner ball to count as a mandatory peel.

When the striker is in a position where the number of mandatory peels outstanding is equal to the number of hoop points remaining to be scored by his two balls, he cannot score a point by running a hoop. If after running a hoop in this situation the striker continues to play as if the hoop point had been scored, Law 27 applies.

5. Peeling an Adversary's Ball

An adversary's ball may be peeled without penalty, except that if the adversary has a number of mandatory peels outstanding equal to the number of hoop points remaining to be scored by his two balls, his number of mandatory peels outstanding is reduced by one for each peel made on one of his balls.

6. Pegging Out

Law 39 applies. If the striker pegs out an adversary's ball when the adversary still has mandatory peels outstanding, all those mandatory peels are cancelled.

If one of the striker's balls is a rover, and he still has mandatory peels to make, he cannot score the peg point for his rover ball. If his rover ball strikes the peg and is removed from the court, Law 30(d) applies.

7. Wiring Lift

Law 13 applies, but is amended so that part (a)(1) reads: 'it is from its partner ball or, if that has been pegged out, from all balls: and'.


The Laws of Golf Croquet

1. General

The Laws of Association Croquet relating to ordinary singles and doubles play and handicap singles and doubles play apply subject to the following modifications.

2. The Game

(a) All balls are always for the same hoop and a point is scored for the side whose ball first runs the hoop.
(b) A game is a contest for the best of either 13 or 19 points and ends as soon as one side has scored a majority of the points to be played. The score is kept by declaring a side to be one or more points up or down or all square as the case may be.
(c) Each turn consists of one stroke. Law 4 and the laws relating to wiring lifts (Law 13), peg points (Law 15), roquets (Laws 16 to 18), croquet strokes (Laws 19 and 20) and continuation strokes (Law 21) do not apply.
(d) Law 8 does not apply and the balls are played in the sequence blue, red, black, yellow (or green, pink, brown, white). Thus if yellow is played in one stroke, blue will be played in the following stroke-

3 The Course

(a) Law 6 does not apply and the balls are played into the game from the B baulk-line only.
(b) In a 13 point game the first 12 points are scored by contesting all the hoops in the same order as in Association Croquet. The final point is scored by contesting hoop 3 again.
(c) In a 19 point game the first 12 points are scored by contesting all the hoops in the same order as in Association Croquet. The next 6 points are scored by contesting 1-back to rover again. The final point is scored by contesting hoop 3 again.

4. Hoop Point

(a) Law 14(c) does not apply and, subject to (b) below, a ball must complete the running of a hoop in order in one turn to score the point.
(b) If the striker causes an adversary ball partly to run a hoop in order that ball may score the point by completing the running of the hoop in a subsequent turn.
(c) If a ball runs two hoops in order in one stroke both points are scored.

5. Errors

(a) FAILING TO CONTEST THE HOOP IN ORDER

(1) The striker must always play to contest the hoop in order and must never play solely to gain an advantage for the next hoop in order. If he does so and the error is not condoned, the stroke is invalid, the balls are replaced in the positions they occupied before that stroke and the turn ends.
(2) The error is condoned if it is not discovered before the next stroke is played. In that event the stroke in error is deemed to be valid.

(b) PLAYING OUT OF SEQUENCE

(1) If a player plays out of sequence and the error is not condoned, the first stroke in error and all subsequent strokes are invalid, the balls are replaced in their lawful positions before the first stroke in error and the player entitled to play then plays.
(2) The error is condoned if it is not discovered before the end of the game.

(c) PLAYING A WRONG BALL

(1) If the striker plays a wrong ball and the error is not condoned, the first stroke in error and all subsequent strokes are invalid, the balls are replaced in their lawful positions before the first stroke in error and the striker then plays with the correct ball.
(2) The error is condoned if it is not discovered before the end of the game.

(d) JUMP STROKE

(1) The striker must not play a deliberate jump stroke. If he does so and the error is not condoned, any point scored for his side thereby is invalid and all balls affected by the stroke may be replaced in their lawful positions at the option of the adversary.
(2) The error is condoned if it is not discovered before the next stroke is played. In that event, the stroke in error is deemed to be valid.

6. Handicaps

Unless a player has been given a special Golf Croquet handicap his handicap shall be determined from his Association Croquet handicap in accordance with the following table.

ASSOCIATION CROQUET HANDICAP 13 POINT GAME HANDICAP 19 POINT GAME HANDICAP
-5 to -1 0 0
- ½ to 2 1
2½ to 6 2 3
6½ to 9 3
10 to 12 4 6
13 to 16 5
17 to 20 6 9

Regulations for Tournaments - General

1. Introduction

(a) The Council of the Croquet Association, the Australian Croquet Association and the New Zealand Croquet Council have agreed that regulations for tournaments held within their respective jurisdictions are a domestic matter for the governing body concerned.
(b) The Laws of Association Croquet and of Golf Croquet, if relevant, ("the Laws") and these Regulations shall apply in all calendar fixtures.
(c) The Council of the Croquet Association and the Croquet Association are referred to herein as "the Council" and "the CA" respectively.

2. Eligibility to Compete in Calendar Fixtures

(a) MEMBERSHIP OF THE CROQUET ASSOCIATION

(1) Subject to (a)(2) and (3) below, only Life Associates and Associates who pay the Standard, Veteran, Junior, Youth or Overseas subscription rates may compete in calendar fixtures.
(2) The Council may remove this restriction from certain calendar fixtures ("exempt fixtures"). The names of any exempt fixtures shall be published in the CA Calendar.
(3) Non-Associates and Associates who pay the Non-Tournament subscription rates are also entitled to play in one calendar fixture other than an exempt fixture. Thereafter, if such an individual wishes to compete in a calendar fixture other than an exempt fixture, he must comply with (a)(1) above.

(b) PROFESSIONALS

(1) A professional croquet player ("a professional") may not compete in a calendar fixture if notice has been given in the tournament programme in accordance with Regulation 19(a)(2) that professionals are excluded therefrom.
(2) A professional is defined as a player who has received and retained total prize money (including appearance money) exceeding the aggregate prize limit in the twelve months preceding the relevant calendar fixture.
(3) The aggregate prize limit will be determined from time to time by the Council and published in the CA Fixtures Book.

(c) DOPING

(1) Doping is forbidden. A player who uses any substance or procedure included in the International Olympic Committee Medical Commission list of prohibited doping classes or methods in

(A) competitions designated by the Council; or
(B) other calendar fixtures, where the substance or procedure has not been prescribed by a doctor, is automatically disqualified from competing in calendar fixtures until the Council removes the disqualification.

(2) The identification of a forbidden substance and/or a substance produced in the body from such a substance, or the presence of specified amounts of natural body substances, in a body fluid will constitute an offence as defined in (c)(1) above. Caffeine is deemed to be a natural body substance for these purposes.
(3) A player must, if requested by an official designated by the Council for the purpose of doping control, submit to a doping control test. If the result of the doping control test is positive, the player will be subject to the doping control procedure laid down from time to time by the Council and published in Croquet. A player who refuses to submit to a doping control test will be treated as if a positive result had been obtained and will be dealt with accordingly.
(4) A person who assists or incites another to contravene the doping regulations may be subject to disciplinary action.

3. Officials

Every tournament must have a Tournament Referee, a Tournament Handicapper and a Manager who are together responsible, each so far as his powers and duties are herein defined, for the interpretation and enforcement of the Laws and Regulations and the administration of the tournament. The powers and duties of all three officials may be discharged by one person.


REGULATIONS FOR TOURNAMENTS - REFEREES

Modified March 1999

4. The Tournament Referee

The powers and duties of the Tournament Referee are as follows.

(a) To nominate, at his discretion, Referees or Assistant Referees from the official list of referees to assist him in the duties specified below. If there are insufficient official referees available, he may nominate other suitable persons. There is no appeal from the decision of a Referee or Assistant Referee except to the Tournament Referee, before the next stroke, on questions of law and decisions under Law 51 or Regulation 5(j). If the Tournament Referee will be absent or unavailable at any time, he must appoint a Deputy, from whose decision, while acting as Tournament Referee, there is no appeal.
(b) To check the accuracy of court settings and tournament equipment.
(c) To place himself or a Referee nominated under (a) above in Charge of a game, either at his discretion and after informing the players accordingly or at the request of either side.
(d) To be available or to see that an official nominated under (a) above is available to act as a Referee on Call or as a Referee on Appeal or as an Umpire.



REGULATIONS FOR TOURNAMENTS - REFEREES

Modified March 1999

5. Referee in Charge

The powers and duties of a Referee in Charge of a game are as follows.

(a) If he takes charge of a game already in progress, to ascertain the state of the game. If the players disagree, he must settle the dispute as a Referee on Appeal.
(b) To give his attention entirely to the game and to act as an ever-vigilant adversary. The presence of a Referee in Charge neither relieves the striker of his obligation nor deprives the adversary of his right to warn that a questionable stroke is about to be played or to draw attention to any error that may have been committed.
(c) To take up the most favourable position for adjudicating the fairness and effect of a questionable stroke. The Referee in Charge should not go on to the court unless a questionable stroke is about to be played.
(d) To decide all questions of fact and law, subject to the right of either player to appeal to the Tournament Referee under Regulation 4(a). When adjudicating whether one ball is wired from another the benefit of any doubt should be given to the claimant.
(e) On request, to give any information to any player concerning the state of the game at any time. However, a decision whether one ball is wired from another may not be given unless a player is claiming a wiring lift at the start of a turn.
(f) To state at his discretion or if appealed to what the law on any matter is. Such information may be given before any stroke likely to be affected is played. He may not otherwise advise a player. He must not state whether a ball has been moved or shaken when a wiring lift may ensue unless asked by a player.
(g) To explain to a player who has committed a fault the nature of the fault, either at his discretion or on request.
(h) To correct the setting of hoops, peg and boundary lines unless the position is critical, in which case no correction may be made until the position has ceased to be critical, except when a replay has been granted under Law 51.
(i) At his discretion, to repair any special damage on the court.
(j) To penalise any player for breaches of the Laws or other blameworthy conduct as best meets the justice of the case. In the last resort, he may disqualify a player. These powers should be exercised sparingly and any player aggrieved by a decision of a Referee may appeal to the Tournament Referee under Regulation 4(a).
(k) To do anything else necessary to discharge his duties as a Referee in Charge.

Modified March 1999

6. Referee on Call

A Referee on Call is the Tournament Referee or other Referee nominated under Regulation 4(a) who is asked to act before an event has occurred. Subject as follows, his powers and duties are identical to those of a Referee in Charge while he is so acting. He remains in charge until he quits the court in the belief that his duties have been discharged.

(a) He must first inform himself of the state of the game so far as it relates to the matter on which he has been called. If the players disagree, he must settle the dispute as a Referee on Appeal.
(b) If he is called to adjudicate a wiring lift, he must confirm that the claimant has not yet started his turn and that the adversary is responsible for the position of the relevant ball.
(c) Either player may appeal to the Tournament Referee under Regulation 4(a).


REGULATIONS FOR TOURNAMENTS - REFEREES

Modified March 1999

7. Referee on Appeal

A Referee on Appeal is the Tournament Referee or other Referee nominated under Regulation 4(a) who is asked to give a decision on any matter of fact or law after an event has occurred. He may decide the matter by observation or investigation or both. Subject as follows, his powers and duties are identical to those of a Referee in Charge while he is so acting. He remains in charge until he quits the court in the belief that his duties have been discharged.

(a) If the Referee on Appeal witnessed the relevant event and is satisfied that he can decide the matter without investigation, he must inform the players that he is deciding the appeal by observation and give his decision accordingly.
(b) In other cases the Referee on Appeal must decide the appeal after investigation. He should hear both sides and, at his discretion, other witnesses. He must inform the players of anything that he has observed that may be relevant. He must then decide the matter to the best of his ability.
(c) In the last resort the Referee on Appeal may give a compromise decision. This may involve arbitrary adjustment of the positions of the clips and balls, the number of bisques outstanding or the amount of time remaining and the order of play. The Referee on Appeal may direct that a game must be restarted.
(d) The Referee on Appeal may not decide that a fault has been committed under Law 32 unless he is satisfied of the fact by personal observation or by the evidence of the striker or a Spectator Referee who personally observed the fault.
(e) Either player may appeal to the Tournament Referee under Regulation 4(a).


REGULATIONS FOR TOURNAMENTS - REFEREES

Modified March 1999

8. Spectator Referee

A Spectator Referee is a Referee not in charge, on call or on appeal whose powers and duties are confined to the following.

(a) To intervene to ensure that play is lawfully continued after an error is claimed or admitted.
(b) To intervene if he hears a player giving erroneous information on the Laws to his adversary.
(c) To intervene in a handicap game if a ball is wrongly removed from the game in breach of Law 39.
(d) To volunteer relevant information to a Referee on Appeal.
(e) To apply to the Tournament Referee to be placed in charge of a game. If so appointed after he has observed that a particular error has been committed, he may not act in respect of that error or draw attention to a misplaced clip until the error has been claimed or admitted or the limit of claims has passed.


REGULATIONS FOR TOURNAMENTS - REFEREES

Modified March 1999

8a. Assistant Referee

An Assistant Referee nominated by the Tournament Referee under Regulation 4(a) may act in a limited capacity as Referee on Call or a Referee on Appeal. When so acting, his powers and duties comprise the following.

(a) To act as a Referee on Call to decide whether

(1) a ball hits another ball; or
(2) a ball is moved or shaken; or
(3) a ball hits the peg; or
(4) a claim for a wiring lift is valid; or
(5) a fault is committed in a stroke.

(b) To act as Referee on Appeal to decide whether

(1) a ball has run a hoop in order or is in position to do so; or
(2) a ball is off the court.


REGULATIONS FOR TOURNAMENTS - REFEREES

Modified March 1999

9. Umpire

An Umpire is a suitable person nominated by the Tournament Referee under Regulation 4(a) whose powers and duties are confined to the following.

(a) To act as a Referee on Call to decide whether

(1) a ball hits another ball; or
(2) a ball is moved or shaken; or
(3) a ball hits the peg.

(b) To act as Referee on Appeal to decide whether

(1) a ball has run a hoop in order or is in position to do so; or
(2) a ball is off the court.


REGULATIONS FOR TOURNAMENTS - REFEREES

10. Handicaps

(a) HANDICAP EVENTS. In a handicap event a competitor must play at the handicap that has become effective at the start of each game in that event.
(b) OFFICIAL HANDICAPS. Official handicaps are recorded by the CA Secretary and those of Associates are published in the CA Directory.
(c) NEW HANDICAPS. A competitor without an official handicap can obtain one at any tournament where the Tournament Handicapper is on the list of official handicappers (see Regulation 11(a)).
(d) HANDICAP Limits. Handicaps range from - 5 to 8 in half-bisque increments and from 8 to 20 in whole bisque increments. Separate handicaps may be given for doubles play. The highest doubles handicap that may be given is 17.
(e) HANDICAPPING PROCEDURES. The Council is empowered to issue procedures for giving new handicaps and altering existing handicaps in addition to those set out in this Regulation and Regulation 11. Any such procedures must be published in Croquet.


REGULATIONS FOR TOURNAMENTS - REFEREES

11. The Tournament Handicapper

The powers and duties of a Tournament Handicapper are as follows.

(a) To give a provisional handicap to a competitor who has no official handicap and to alter such a handicap before or during play. No handicap may be given that is higher than the competitor's club handicap i f that has been certified by the secretary of a registered croquet club of which the competitor is an annual paying or life member.
(b) To alter official handicaps before or, if it is necessary in the interests of the tournament, during play and to inform the manager of such alterations.
(c) To alter official handicaps and give new official handicaps in place of provisional handicaps after play and to inform the competitors concerned before they leave the tournament.


REGULATIONS FOR TOURNAMENTS - MANAGEMENT OF TOURNAMENTS

12. The Manager

The powers and duties of the Manager of a tournament are as follows.

(a) To advise the club or other body responsible for the tournament of the maximum number of entries that can be accommodated.
(b) To superintend the draw or to nominate another to do so on his behalf.
(c) To decide the order in which events are played.
(d) To allot courts to competitors and to declare any court to be unfit for play.
(e) To decide when play shall start and finish each day of the tournament.
(f) To alter the tournament programme at his discretion, namely

(1) to impose time limits under Regulation 13;
(2) to shorten games in accordance with Part 5 of the Laws;
(3) to play the final game of an event in which the games have been shortened or subject to a time-limit as a full game;
(4) to play a single-life event as two-life, best of three, American or Swiss;
(5) to alter handicap limits in class events and make consequential adjustments to entries;
(6) to impose tie-breaks of such form as he thinks fit;
(7) to introduce a two-life variation (see Regulation 14(e));
(8) to introduce double-banking;
(9) to allow extra time for double-banked games or in an emergency.

(g) To agree with the club or other body responsible for the tournament other alterations to the tournament programme which do not contravene the Laws and these Regulations.
(h) To grant or refuse leave of absence to players.
(j) To disqualify a player

(1) if he is in breach of Regulations 2, 21 or 22; or
(2) if he is absent or unable to play when called upon by the Manager; or
(3) if he practises on the courts without the manager's permission; or
(4) if he refuses to play in flat-soled footwear; or
(5) if he is guilty of misconduct.

(k) To adjourn an unfinished game, provided that no ball is in a critical position (see Law 23(d)), and to record the state of the game or to nominate another to do so on his behalf.


REGULATIONS FOR TOURNAMENTS - MANAGEMENT OF TOURNAMENTS

13. Time Limits

(a) The Manager may impose a time limit of not less than 3 hours (or 2½ hours in a week-end tournament)

(1) on all games in an event, provided that such a-time limit is advertised in advance or announced at the tournament before the start of the event, in which case, subject to Regulation 12(f)(3), it may not be removed; or
(2) on each game in any round of an event.

(b) If no time limit has been imposed under (a) above, the Manager may impose a time limit of one hour on any game that has been in progress for at least 2 hours (or 1½ hours in a week-end tournament).
(c)

(1) When a time limit has been imposed on a game, the players should arrange for an independent person or, failing that, one of themselves to be responsible for announcing audibly that the time limit has been reached.
(2) Play then continues for an extension period in which the striker completes his turn and his adversary plays one subsequent turn. For the sole purpose of determining whether the striker's turn ends before or after time is called, it is deemed that his turn ends and the adversary's turn begins as soon as he strikes the striker's ball or is deemed to have played it in the last stroke of his turn.
(3) The side which has scored the greater number of points at the end of the extension period is the winner. If each side has scored the same number of points, play continues and the side for which the next point is scored is the winner.

(d) No half-bisque or bisque may he played during the extension period or immediately thereafter by the player in play when the extension period ends. If play continues after the end of the extension period under (c)(3) above, any half-bisque or bisques may then be played.
(e) This Regulation is subject to Law 50(c)(1) and Regulations 7(c) and 12(f)(9).
(f)

(1) As an alternative to a one-hour time limit imposed under (b) above,or to the final hour of a time limit imposed under (a), the Manager may limit instead the number of further turns to twelve (exclusive of any bisque turns) to be played by each side.
(2) (c)(2) above does not apply but a player whose turn is in progress when the further turns are due to take effect shall complete that turn first.
(3) If the game has not ended before these turns are completed, the side that has scored the greater number of points is the winner. If each side has scored the same number of points, play continues and the side for which the next point is scored is the winner.

(Amendment to Regulations)


REGULATIONS FOR TOURNAMENTS - MANAGEMENT OF TOURNAMENTS

14. Knockout Events

(a) Seeding is permitted in a first-class event if notice is given in the tournament programme. A first-class event is an event played under the conditions of advanced play with unrestricted entry except for restrictions excluding men or women, non-Associates or players with handicaps exceeding a stated number of bisque or other restrictions approved by the Council.
(b) In other events the draw may be adjusted only in order to avoid as far as possible an early meeting between

(1) players from the same club; or
(2) close relatives; or
(3) players already drawn to meet in the first round of another event.

(c) SINGLE-LIFE EVENTS. Subject to (a) and (b) above, the draw is compiled by the Bagnall-Wild method as follows.

(1) Subtract the number of entries from the power of 2 (i.e. 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256) greater than or equal to the number of entries. This gives the number of byes.
(2) Subtract the number of byes from the number of entries. This gives the number of players in the first round.
(3) If the number of byes is even, either half are placed at the top of the draw and half at the bottom or, if the number of byes is not divisible by 4 (i.e. 2, 6,10, 14,18 etc.), two more byes may be placed at the bottom than at the top; if the number of byes is odd, one more bye is placed at the bottom than at the top; within each half the byes may be distributed between the two quarters according to the same principle; similarly within each quarter between each eighth, etc.
(4) The names of the players are then drawn at random and entered on a draw sheet in the order in which they are drawn, starting at the top and numbered accordingly.
(5) If a bona fide entry is omitted, the name of the player is inserted on the draw sheet at the position an additional name would occupy. If the number of entries were one greater and any necessary consequential adjustment is made. If there is more than one omission or more than one possible position the matter is decided by lot.
(6) If an entry is included in error, it is struck out and the draw remains valid.
Example: 21 entries give 11 byes and 10 players (5 matches) in the first round. 5 byes are placed at the top of the draw and 6 at the bottom. Thus the first 5 players to be drawn receive byes, the next 10 players compete in the first round and the last 6 receive byes.

(d) TWO-LIFE EVENTS

(1) The draw for the first life, known as the Draw, is made in accordance with (c) above.
(2) The draw for the second life, known as the Process, is compiled by entering on a second draw sheet the appropriate series of numbers from the table set out below. Next to each number is entered the name of the player next to that number in the Draw (see (c)(4) above). Any player who is paired with a blank opponent receives a bye.

Process order

Entries
1 to 4   1   3   2   4
5 to 8   1 5 3 7 2 6 4 8
9 to 16 (1st 8) 1 9 5 13 3 11 7 15
  (2nd 8) 2 10 6 14 4 12 8 16
17 to 32 (1st 8) 1 17 9 25 5 21 13 29
  (2nd 8) 3 19 11 27 7 23 15 31
  (3rd 8) 2 18 10 26 6 22 14 30
  (4th 8) 4 20 12 28 8 24 16 32
33 to 64 (1st 8) 1 33 17 49 9 41 25 57
  (2nd 8) 5 37 21 53 13 45 29 61
  (3rd 8) 3 35 19 51 11 43 27 59
  (4th 8) 7 39 23 55 15 47 31 63
  (5th 8) 2 34 18 50 10 42 26 58
  (6th 8) 6 38 22 54 14 46 30 62
  (7th 8) 4 36 20 52 12 44 28 60
  (8th 8) 8 40 24 56 16 48 32 64

For 65 to 128 players, additional columns are generated by adding 64 to each number for 33 to 64 entries and inserting the result immediately to the right of that number.

(3) The winner of the Draw plays an extra match against the winner of the Process to decide the event winner. If the same player wins both halves of the event, the defeated finalists in the Draw and Process may play off for second place.

(e) TWO-LIFE VARIATIONS

(1) These variations reduce a two-life event to a single-life event but may not be introduced in a first-class event (as defined in (a) above).
(2) VARIATION A. This is introduced when both lives have reached the semi-final stage and there are fewer than eight players involved. The draw is compiled on a draw sheet containing positions numbered from 1 to 8.

7 players: the player in both lives is placed in position 1 and receives a bye; position 2 is blank and the other players are drawn by lot to fill positions 3 to 8.
6 players: the two players in both lives are placed in positions 1 and 8 and receive byes; positions 2 and 7 are blank and the other players are drawn by lot to fill positions 3 to 6.
5 players: the three players in both lives are drawn by lot to fill positions 1,3 and 8 and receive byes; positions 2,4 and 7 are blank and the other players are drawn by lot to fill positions 5 and 6.
4 players: all players are drawn by lot.

(3) VARIATION B. This is introduced when both lives have reached the final stage and there are fewer than four players involved.

3 players: the player in both lives plays the winner of a game between the other two players.
2 players: they play each other once.

(f) XY AND XYZ EVENTS

(1) THE X EVENT. The players are drawn in accordance with (c) above.
(2) THE Y EVENT. Players who lose their first match in the X enter the Y automatically in the same order as they were drawn in the X.
(3) THE Z EVENT (if played). Players who lose their second match in the X or their first match in the Y enter the Z automatically, but in any order the Manager thinks fit.
(4) Byes and, in XY events, walkovers do not count as a win. Competitors who scratch from the X or Y may not enter the Y or Z.


REGULATIONS FOR TOURNAMENTS - MANAGEMENT OF TOURNAMENTS

15. American Events

Unless otherwise advertised in advance or announced before the start of the event, the method of determining a block winner is as follows.

(a) The winner is the player who has won the most games.
(b) If there is a tie on games, the winner is the player who has the largest net points total. The net points total for each player is the number of points scored less the number of points conceded.
(c) If there is a tie on games and net points totals

(1) between two players, the winner is the winner of the game between them; or
(2) between more than two players, the winner is the winner of the most games in the games between the players in the tie; or
(3) if there is still a tie, Regulation 12(f)(6) may be applied.


REGULATIONS FOR TOURNAMENTS - MANAGEMENT OF TOURNAMENTS

16. Swiss Events

(a) NUMBER OF ROUNDS. The number of rounds should normally be at least two greater than the number of rounds required in a single life knock-out event for the same entry.
(b) DETERMINATION OF PAIRINGS. The following rules are applied in the order in which they appear.

(1) Positions in the draw for the first round are determined by lot.
(2) No player may play the same opponent more than once except in the final round as a tie-break under Regulation 12(f)(6).
(3) After each round all players are grouped in order of their cumulative scores. The players within each group are then ordered as in the previous round.
(4) Pairings for the next round are generated by pairing players as follows:

(A) the top two players
(B) the bottom two players
(C) the top two unpaired players
(D) the bottom two unpaired players and so on until all players are paired.

(5) A player who cannot be paired under (4) is paired instead with the unpaired player whose record is closest to his own.

(c) BYES AND DEFAULTS

(1) If the number of players is odd, or becomes odd by a player withdrawing, then, for pairing purposes, an imaginary player named Bye is introduced whose score is permanently zero. If a real player is paired with Bye in any round, he is deemed to win by the maximum margin. Bye is withdrawn if the number of real players later becomes even.
(2) If a player defaults in any round, his opponent is deemed to win by the maximum margin.
(3) No player may be paired with Bye more than once.

(d) DETERMINATION OF THE WINNER

(1) The winner is the player who has won the most games.
(2) If there is a tie between two players who have played each other, the winner is the winner of the game between them.
(3) If there is a tie between more than two players all of whom have played each other, the winner is the player who has won the most games in the games between the players in the tie.
(4) If there is a tie between more than two players, not all of whom have played each other, the winner is the player who has defeated all the other players in the tie.
(5) If there is still a tie, Regulation 12(f)(6) may be applied.


REGULATIONS FOR TOURNAMENTS - MANAGEMENT OF TOURNAMENTS

17. Class Events

(a) When there are events played in classes according to handicap, players must be drawn in such classes as their official handicaps entitle them to enter, subject to Regulation 12(f)(5).
(b) If a player is correctly drawn in a class but becomes ineligible before he begins to play therein, he must be removed from that class and treated as an entry accidentally included therein and accidentally omitted from the class to which he now belongs (see Regulation 14(c)(5) and (6)).


REGULATIONS FOR TOURNAMENTS - ORGANISING TOURNAMENTS

18. Calendar Fixtures

(a) If a tournament is to appear in the CA Fixtures Book, the club or other body responsible must

(1) submit the proposed dates of the tournament to the Council not later than 31 August in the preceding year; these dates, if approved, or other dates, if so agreed with the Council, will appear in the CA Fixtures Book;
(2) send a tournament programme which complies with Regulation 19 for insertion in the CA Fixtures Book to the CA Secretary not later than 31 October in the preceding year;
(3) provide standard or modified courts laid out and equipped in accordance with the Laws;
(4) provide balls of identical manufacture and type;
(5) agree with the Manager the maximum number of entries that the capacity of the courts available will allow;
(6) include in the entry fee for each event such amount for the benefit of the CA, known as Levy, as is determined from time to time by the Council.

(b) The club or other body responsible for the tournament must arrange with the Manager or another suitable person to send to the CA Secretary as soon as possible after the tournament

(1) the full results of the tournament on the forms provided by the CA;
(2) the total sum of Levy; and
(3) any tournament report.


REGULATIONS FOR TOURNAMENTS - ORGANISING TOURNAMENTS

19. Tournament Programme

(a) A tournament programme must give the following information:

(1) the dates and venue of the tournament;
(2) the nature of each event, any qualifications or restrictions and the entry fee (inclusive of Levy);
(3) notice of any seeding (see Regulation 14(a));
(4) notice of any authorised variations (see (b) below);
(5) the dimensions of any modified courts;
(6) the type of ball to be used;
(7) the width of the hoops if 3¾ inch hoops are not to be used;
(8) the time play will begin on the first day;
(9) the time when entries close and when the draw will be made;
(10) the names of the Manager, Tournament Referee and Tournament Handicapper (if known) and the name and address of the Tournament Secretary for receipt of entries.

(b) Authorised variations include full bisque handicap play, alternate stroke handicap doubles play and short croquet (see Appendices 3, 4 and 5 respectively of the Laws) and any other variations approved by the Council.
(c) No event in a calendar fixture may be described as a championship without the permission of the Council.
(d) No alterations may be made to the tournament programme without the agreement of the Manager (see Regulation 12(g)).


REGULATIONS FOR TOURNAMENTS - PLAYERS

20. Assumed Names

An Associate may compete in a tournament under an assumed name if he has registered it with the CA Secretary and paid a fee of such amount as is determined from time to time by the Council.


REGULATIONS FOR TOURNAMENTS - PLAYERS

21. Entries

(a) No entry may be accepted for an event unless the entry fee including Levy has been paid prior to the advertised date of the draw.
(b) All entries are accepted on the condition that a player may not continue to compete in more than one event if the Manager considers that the progress of the tournament is thereby being unduly delayed. However, if a player is scratched from an event for this reason before he has played a match, his entry fee must be refunded.


REGULATIONS FOR TOURNAMENTS - PLAYERS

22. Responsibility for Correct Handicap

(a) Every player is obliged to record on his entry form his current official handicap and, if different, his current club handicap. Any subsequent alteration must be reported to the Manager on arrival at the tournament.
(b) Every player bears the final responsibility for ensuring that he plays at the correct handicap. If a player plays in a handicap event at a handicap higher than that to which he is entitled or in a class event that his handicap does not entitle him to enter, he must be disqualified. In knock-out events in which he has not been defeated, his place is taken by his last opponent. In American or Swiss events his record is deleted from the event.


Schedule 1

Schedule of Bisques in Modified Games

FULL 22 18 14 FULL 22 18 14
¼ 0 0 0 10¼ 7
½ ½ ½ ½ 10½ 9
¾ ½ ½ ½ 10¾ 9 6
1 1 ½ ½ 11 6
1 1 ½ 11¼ 8 6
1 1 11½ 8 6
1 1 11¾ 10 8
2 1 12 10
2 1 12¼ 10½
2 12½ 10½
2 12¾ 11 9 7
3 2 13 11 9 7
3 2 13¼ 11 9 7
3 2 13½ 11½
3 2 13¾ 11½
4 3 2 14 12
3 14¼ 12 10
4 3 14½ 12½ 10 8
4 14¾ 12½ 10 8
5 4 15 12½ 10½ 8
3 15¼ 13 10½ 8
4 3 15½ 13 10½
5 4 3 15¾ 13½ 11
6 5 4 3 16 13½ 11
16¼ 14 11½ 9
16½ 14 11½ 9
16¾ 14 11½ 9
7 6 5 4 17 14½ 12 9
6 5 4 17¼ 14½ 12
5 4 17½ 15 12
4 17¾ 15 12½
8 7 18 15 12½
7 18¼ 15½ 12½ 10
7 6 18½ 15½ 13 10
6 18¾ 16 13 10
9 6 5 19 16 13 10
8 5 19¼ 16½ 13½ 10½
8 5 19½ 16½ 13½ 10½
7 19¾ 16½ 13½ 10½
10 7 20 17 14 11

Guide to Limits of Claims

The limit of claims is the end of the period within which an error can be rectified under these laws. Note that there may be a restricted remedy if an error is discovered after the limit of claims but before the end of a game (see Laws 27(b) and 28(b)(2)).

Law

27. PLAYING WHEN NOT ENTITLED TO DO SO
Before the first stroke of the adversary's next turn.

28. PLAYING A WRONG BALL

(a) PLAYING THE PARTNER BALL AT THE START OF A TURN
Before the [first] second stroke of the striker's turn.
[There was a typographical error in the printed laws.]

(b) ALL OTHER CASES
Before the first stroke of the adversary's next turn.

29. PLAYING WHEN A BALL IS MISPLACED ~ GENERAL RULE
Before the next stroke of the striker's turn.

30. PLAYING WHEN A BALL IS MISPLACED - EXCEPTIONS

(a) TAKING CROQUET FROM A WRONG BALL
(b) TAKING CROQUET WHEN NOT ENTITLED TO DO SO
(c) FAILING TO TAKE CROQUET WHEN ENTITLED TO DO SO
Before the next stroke but one of the striker's turn.

(d) WRONGLY REMOVING OR FAILING TO REMOVE A BALL FROM THE GAME
Before the end of the game.

32. FAULTS
Before the next stroke but one of the striker's turn.

35. PLAYING WHEN MISLED
Before the second stroke of the offender's next turn.

Regulation

4(a) APPEALS TO THE TOURNAMENT REFEREE
Before the next stroke of the striker's turn.

Restoration of Bisques in Handicap Play

Any half-bisque or bisque played after any of the errors set out below is restored under Law 38(h) if the error is discovered within the period stated.

Law

27. PLAYING WHEN NOT ENTITLED TO DO SO
Before the end of the game.

28. (b) PLAYING A WRONG BALL
Before the first stroke of the adversary's next turn.

29. (c) PLAYER UNABLE TO PLAY CORRECT BALL
Before the first stroke of the adversary's next turn.

30. (d) WRONGLY REMOVING OR FAILING TO REMOVE A BALL FROM THE GAME
Before the end of the game.

 

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