These Regulations were approved by Council in October 2000 and amended by its Tournament Committees from time to time. The Regulations apply to both Golf and Association Croquet, except where stated. Older (obsolete) Regulations are available for reference in the Regulations for Tournaments Historic Index.
The changes made since the 2012 edition are:
- H1f - Eligibility for Handicap-Restricted Events - Modified such that it is the player's handicap on the Allocation Date (rather than Closing Date) which is relevant to their eligibility to play in handicap-restricted events.
- P1a - Eligibility for Inter-Club Events expanded to include club membership for member clubs of the CA
- T1a - Time Limits for Best of N matches - Amended to ensure that each game in a match has at least a 1.5 hour time limit.
- Incorporation of changes following publication of WCF Sports Regulations 4.1 where those regulations offer an improvement in effect or clarity, or raise issues not previously covered in these Regulations. In particular:
- P3h - to make it clear that players may withdraw from plate events provided that they inform the manager before that event starts.
- P3j - to include players acceptance of published variations to regulations as part of their entry.
- P4e - hoop running is restricted during the warm-up period, bringing the regulation into line with the instruction issued by many tournament managers.
- O1c - to clarify the constitution, scope and power of an appeals committee.
- Updated throughout to make it clear that Dynamic Grade (DG) is preferred to CGS Grade for AC
- M2 - Sanctions and Disqualifications merged into a single regulation
- Appendix 3 updated to permit exceptions to protected titles for tournaments when there is an historical justification.
- Appendix 5 updated to include all permitted laws variations, including
- Merge the approved Super Advanced laws variation, so that both variations apply to all Super Advanced games. Using commonly used terminology, TV3 is now the only permitted variation. TV1 and TV2 have been withdrawn.
- Update to include the AC Handicap Doubles law variation approved as a trial by the CA Council in March 2013
- Update to include the GC Wrong Ball law variation approved as a trial by the CA Council in March 2013
- Include reference to P4a (Hoop Jammed in Hoop)
- A few typographical errors have also been corrected.
- JURISDICTION. The Council of the Croquet Association and the governing bodies of croquet in Australia, New Zealand and the United States of America have agreed that regulations for tournaments held within their respective jurisdictions are a domestic matter for the governing body concerned.
- TERMINOLOGY. The Croquet Association and its Council are referred to herein as the "CA" and "Council" respectively; the latter may delegate its powers to its committees. The publication entitled "Fixtures Calendar" is referred to as the "Calendar". A tournament or competition advertised therein to be played within the domain of the CA is referred to as a "Calendar Fixture" and the club or other body responsible for it as the "Organising Body"; "CA Events"" are those organised by the CA or by clubs on its behalf. "He" and "his" are used for simplicity, and should be taken as "he or she" and "his or her" throughout. Except when indicated to the contrary, "ranking" (in the context of Association Croquet) refers to the most recent available Dynamic Grade (DG)
- SCOPE. These Regulations shall apply in all Calendar Fixtures, together with any conditions consistent with them which are specifically published for a particular tournament or event. These Regulations take precedence over any extracts of Regulations printed in Laws books. Games shall be played under one of the following set of Laws:
- for Association Croquet, the current "Laws of Association Croquet" as published by the CA, or
- for Golf Croquet, the current "Laws of Golf Croquet" as published by the CA
C. CLUBS AND OTHER TOURNAMENT ORGANISERS
C1 CALENDAR FIXTURES
- REQUIREMENTS. If a tournament is to appear in the CA Calendar, the Organising Body must:
- submit, as soon as possible after 1st August, draft dates and, no later than 30th September, the proposed dates of the tournament to the CA Office or other nominated person, to enable the Calendar to be assembled for the following year;
- send, no later than 31st October, a tournament programme which complies with Regulation C2 to the CA Office or other nominated person, for insertion in the CA Calendar;
- provide standard or modified courts laid out and equipped in accordance with the Laws, with hoops set to the standard specified in Appendix 1;
- provide balls of identical manufacture and type;
- agree with the Manager the maximum number of entries that the capacity of the courts available will allow;
- process entries according to Regulation C3;
- include in the entry fee for each event such amount for the benefit of the CA, known as Levy, as is determined from time to time by Council.
- unless otherwise stated, provide lunches and teas.
- unless otherwise stated, make players honorary members of the host club for the duration of the tournament.
- RETURNS. The Organising Body must arrange with the Manager or another suitable person to send to the CA Office, or other nominated person, as soon as possible after the tournament:
- the full results of the tournament in the form notified by the CA;
- the total sum of Levy;
- any tournament report;
- receipt forms for any CA trophies held;
- a list of any handicap changes;
- details of any incidents alleged or dealt with under Regulations P2, P3(h), P5(b), P6(b), M2(g), or by referees under AC Law 55(b)(1) or GC Law 14.
C2 TOURNAMENT PROGRAMME
- CONTENTS. A tournament programme must give the following information:
- the dates and venue of the tournament;
- the nature of each event, any qualifications or restrictions, including handicap or grading, and the entry fee (inclusive of Levy);
- notice of any seeding (see Regulation F1(a));
- notice of any authorised variations (see (b) below and Regulation M1(i) );
- the dimensions of any modified courts;
- the type of ball to be used;
- the width of the hoops if not as in Appendix 1;
- the time play will begin on the first day;
- the dates by which entries must be received by the Tournament Secretary:
- for inclusion in the initial allocation of places (the allocation date, which is recommended to be 4 weeks before the event for Championship events and 8 weeks for others);
- for inclusion in the list of entries passed to the manager (the closing date, which is recommended to be 2 weeks before the event).;
- the date and time of the draw, if known; and
- the names of the Manager, Tournament Referee and Tournament Handicapper (if known) and the name and address of the Tournament Secretary.
- PERMITTED FORMS OF PLAY. Any form of croquet defined in the latest editions of the Laws of Association Croquet or Laws of Golf Croquet, together with any temporary variations approved by Council and published in Appendix 5 of these Regulations.
- CHAMPIONSHIPS. No event in a Calendar Fixture may be described as a Championship without the permission of Council. The conditions for so doing are given in Appendix 4. Use of certain other titles is also restricted as specified in Appendix 3.
- ALTERATIONS. No alterations may be made to the tournament programme without the agreement of the Manager (see Regulation M2(c) and M2(d)).
- DOUBLE BANKING. The expectation is that double banking will be used.
C3 PROCEDURES FOR DEALING WITH ENTRIES
- Entries received before the allocation date should be held and considered together on or as soon as possible after that date.
- If the number of entries then exceeds the number of places available, the Manager and current trophy holders shall be given priority, after which
For this purpose, the Dynamic or CGS grade of a player who has played fewer than 10 ranking games during the previous calendar year shall be reduced by 50 points for each successive year that he has done so.
- for Championship events, the players with the highest ranking (Dynamic Grade for AC, CGS Grade for GC) at that date shall be selected; or
- for other events, places shall be allocated by ballot.
- If not oversubscribed at the allocation date, all the entries submitted should be accepted. Entries received subsequently should be accepted in order of receipt until the event is full or the closing date is reached.
- WAITING LIST. Surplus entrants should be notified as soon as possible and, if so requested on the entry form placed on a reserve list in the order they would have been accepted if additional places had been available.
- LATE ENTRIES. After the closing date, entries may only be accepted with the agreement of the Manager, and a surcharge of 50% of the entry fee may be imposed.
- REFUNDS. Entry fees must be refunded to unsuccessful applicants in full and to those who withdraw before the closing date less an administrative charge not exceeding £5.
- REFUSAL. An Organising Body may refuse an entry on grounds other than those of over-subscription or ineligibility but must give the reason(s) to the person refused on request.
F. FORMATS FOR EVENTS
The following text is intended to apply to Association and Golf Croquet events. However, normal practice in virtually all International and National Golf Croquet events has been to use American blocks initially with one or more leading players in each block then competing in a knock out or progressing to a National Championship final. This has been found to meet most needs in the Golf Croquet calendar, though the Manager may adopt one of the alternative formats described below if he feels that it could apply to his particular circumstances.
For deciding the placings in American blocks the relevant paragraphs of Regulation F2 shall apply unless alternatives are published before the start of the tournament.
F1 KNOCK-OUT EVENTS
- SEEDING IN ADVANCED PLAY EVENTS. Seeding is permitted in any event played under the conditions of Advanced Play, if notice is given in the tournament programme. In a seeded draw, the seeds will be placed in the following order: 1, 16, 9, 8, 5, 12, 13, 4, 3, 14, 11, 6, 7, 10, 15, 2. Fewer seeds may be used as required, but the order of those used will be maintained. Seeds 1 and 2 must be in separate halves of the draw, 1 to 4 in separate quarters, 1 to 8 in separate eighths, and 1 to 16 in separate sixteenths. The byes are then allocated as per Regulation F1(c)(3). Consecutive seeds can be deemed to be equal and drawn by lot into their respective positions.
- SEEDING IN OTHER EVENTS. In other events the draw may be adjusted only in order to avoid as far as possible an early meeting between:
- players from the same club; or
- close relatives; or
- players already drawn to meet in the first round of another event.
- SINGLE-LIFE EVENTS. Subject to (a) and (b) above, the draw is compiled by the Bagnall-Wild method as follows:
- Subtract the number of entries from the power of 2 (i.e. 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256) greater than or equal to the number of entries. This gives the number of byes.
- If seeding is to be used, place the seeds in the draw in accordance with (a) above.
- Distribute the byes in the first round of the draw sheet as follows:
- if the number of byes is odd, one more bye is placed at the bottom than at the top, or vice versa, as determined by lot; or
- if the number of byes is a multiple of 4 (i.e. 4, 8, 12, 16, etc.), half are placed at the top and half at the bottom; or
- In all other cases (i.e. 2, 6, 10, 14, etc.), either (at the choice of the Manager, but consistently for an entire draw):
- half are placed at the top and half at the bottom [This will continue to ensure an even distribution of byes throughout the draw]; or
- two more byes are placed in one half than the other, which half being determined by lot [This will distribute byes approximately evenly, but in a way to ensure at most one 'hanging bye' (i.e. so that at most one player does not have a game that could be started immediately)].
- Within each half the byes may be distributed between the two quarters according to the same principle; similarly within each quarter between the two eighths, etc. When a bye appears to need to be placed in a position already occupied (by a seed), the bye is instead placed as if drawn against that seed.
- Byes can be omitted from a published draw sheet, with those players who are subsequently drawn against them promoted to the second round. This is a presentational change which does not affect the actual draw.
- The names of the players are then drawn at random and entered on the draw sheet in the order in which they are drawn, starting at the top.
- If a bona fide entry is omitted, the name of the player is inserted on the draw sheet at the position an additional name would occupy if the number of entries were one greater and any necessary consequential adjustment is made. If there is more than one omission or more than one possible position the matter is decided by lot.
- If an entry is included in error, it is struck out and the draw remains valid. If the event has not yet started and it is practicable to do so, the manager may instead decide to adjust or re-do the draw under Regulation M2(e)
- TWO-LIFE EVENTS. (Draw and Process)
- The draw for the first life, known as the Draw, is made in accordance with (c) above, except that (c)(3)(D) shall not apply.
- Each player (but not byes) in the first round of the Draw is numbered sequentially (i.e. in the order written on the draw sheet from top to bottom, not seed order). Remaining numbers required to make the next power of two are byes. (e.g. in the case of an 11 player two-life event, positions 1-11 are taken in order from the Draw, positions 12-16 are allocated as byes.)
- The draw for the second life, known as the Process, is compiled as follows:
- Enter on a second draw sheet the appropriate series of numbers from the table set out below.
|1 to 4
|5 to 8
|9 to 16
|17 to 32
|33 to 64
- For 65 to 128 players, additional columns are generated by adding 64 to each number for "33 to 64" entries and insetting the result immediately to the right of that number.
- Next to each number is entered the name of the player next to that number in the Draw (as numbered in d.2 above)
- Byes can be omitted from a published Process, with those players who are drawn against them promoted to the second round. This is a presentational change which does not affect the actual format.
- The winner of the Draw plays an extra match against the winner of the Process to decide the event winner. If the same player wins both halves of the event, the defeated finalists in the Draw and Process may play off for second place.
- TWO-LIFE VARIATIONS. These variations reduce a two-life event to a single-life event, so for a First-Class event (as defined in Appendix 4) advertised as two-life they may be introduced only in an emergency.
- VARIATION A . This is introduced when both lives have reached the semi-final stage and there are fewer than eight players involved. The draw is compiled on a draw sheet containing positions numbered from 1 to 8.
- 7 players: the player in both lives is placed in position 1 and receives a bye (i.e. position 2 is blank); the other players are drawn by lot to fill positions 3 to 8.
- 6 players: the two players in both lives are placed in positions 1 and 8 and receive byes (i.e. positions 2 and 7 are blank); the other players are drawn by lot to fill positions 3 to 6.
- 5 players: the three players in both lives are drawn by lot to fill positions 1,3 and 8 and receive byes (i.e. positions 2,4 and 7 are blank); the other players are drawn by lot to fill positions 5 and 6.
- 4 players: all players are drawn by lot to occupy the four semi-final places.
- VARIATION B . This is introduced when both lives have reached the final stage and there are fewer than four players involved.
- 3 players: the player in both lives plays the winner of a game between the other two players.
- 2 players: they play each other once.
- XY AND XYZ EVENTS.
- THE X EVENT . The players are drawn in accordance with (c) above.
- THE Y EVENT . Players who lose their first match in the X enter the Y automatically in the same order as they were drawn in the X.
- THE Z EVENT (if played). Players who lose their second match in the X or their first match in the Y enter the Z automatically, but in any order the Manager thinks fit.
- Byes and, in XY events, walkovers do not count as wins. Competitors who scratch from the X or Y may not enter the Y or Z.
F2 ALL-PLAY-ALL (AMERICAN) BLOCK EVENTS
- CONCEPT. An all-play-all (historically known as an American) block event is one in which the players are arranged into one or more blocks according to the conditions advertised for the event.
- Players are allocated to N blocks in accordance with A, B or C:
- Players may be randomly allocated to blocks. Up to N-1 byes should be distributed between blocks to ensure the same number of 'players' in each block.
- If a fully seeded block is required, all players should be placed into descending seeding order. If byes are necessary, they should be placed at the end of the list. A 'zig zag' pattern should be followed to distribute players between the blocks. The example below is based on placing 24 players in 4 blocks. The method is scalable to any number of blocks of arbitrary size.
- If desired, the top multiple of N players may be seeded (in accordance with B) with the remainder (which should normally be the larger part of the draw) placed randomly (in accordance with A). Any required byes should be placed in accordance with A.
- Each block is then played independently of the others, except that a play-off between players from different blocks, arranged according to their final placing within their blocks, may follow.
- In each block, every player in the block is scheduled to play the other players in the block the same, pre-arranged, number of times. A single-life block is one in which each player is scheduled to meet each of the others once only; in a multiple-life block each player is scheduled to meet each of the others two or more times.
- Unless otherwise advertised in advance, or announced before the start of the event, the method of determining the final placing of players in an all-play-all block is described below.
- COMPLETE BLOCKS (ASSOCIATION CROQUET).
- Players are placed in descending order of the number of games they have won.
- Where two or more players are tied on an equal number of games won, and the tie must be resolved for the purpose of awarding prize(s), a play-off between players in different blocks, or qualification for another event, then the players in the tie are placed relative to each other in descending order of the number of games they have won in the games played between them. If necessary, this procedure may be repeated.
- If there is still a tie that needs to be resolved, Regulation M2(c)(6) should be applied.
- COMPLETE BLOCKS (GOLF CROQUET). A match shall be defined as a single competition between two players and can comprise either a single game or the best-of-three or the best-of-five games. Where play in a block requires each player to play all others twice, each game will be regarded as a single game match.
- Players are placed in descending order of the number of matches they have won. Where tied games are permitted, a tie shall be regarded as half a win. Tied games shall not be permitted in best-of-three or best of -five matches.
- If there are two or more players with the same number of wins, the positions will be decided as follows:
- The players will be ranked on the number of matches won in the matches played between those players with an equal number of wins. Where this separates some players, but leaves others still tied, this step shall be repeated on the players still tied. [NB Where two players are tied this is the principle of who-beat-whom.]
- Only in the case of best-of-three or best-of-five matches, for any group of players still tied, the net games won in all their matches in the block will be used to separate them. Where this produces a partial result, net games in the matches involving the still-tied players will be considered. Where step (B) has produced a partial resolution, then the group or groups of players still needing to be separated shall be ranked by returning to step 2(A).
- For any group of players still tied, the net points in the games between each of these players will be used to separate them. If this produces a partial resolution, then the group or groups of players still needing to be separated shall be ranked by returning to step 2(A).
- Any group of players still tied shall be separated by net points for the whole of the original block. Again, after a partial resolution, any remaining tied players can be ranked by returning to step 2(A).
- If none of the above produces a result, Regulation M2(c)(6) should be applied.
- Best Losers: On occasions it may be that the number of players who are due to progress from the block stages of a tournament is not a multiple of the number of blocks. Where this is the case, the following method will be used to determine who goes through:
- An equal number of players from each block will progress automatically by virtue of their finishing position, so that the number of 'best losers' needed is fewer than the number of blocks. Only players who missed out in their block by one position will be considered for the purposes of determining the best losers.
- The players will first be separated by the percentage of matches won in their block.
- Any players still tied will be separated by the percentage of games won in their block.
- Any players still tied will be separated by the average net hoops per game they achieved in their block.
- Any players still tied will be separated by the average number of hoops they scored per game in their block.
- If none of the above produces a result, Regulation M2(c)(6) should be applied.
- GENERAL TREATMENT OF INCOMPLETE BLOCKS. The validity of the format depends on all the games being completed and on players making the same effort to win in each of their games: a wilful failure to do so would be misconduct to which Regulation M2(g) applies. Nevertheless, there will be circumstances, such as illness or weather, which prevent all the games scheduled being completed. (e) and (f) below describe how to deal with this, for single- and multiple-life Association Croquet blocks respectively. A single-life block is one in which each player is scheduled to meet each of the others once only; a multiple-life block is one in which each player is scheduled to meet each of the others two or more times. (g) describes how to deal with incomplete Golf Croquet blocks.
- INCOMPLETE SINGLE-LIFE BLOCKS (ASSOCIATION CROQUET).
- Any player whose final placing under (b) above, had the block been completed, could be predicted to be the same whatever the outcome of the uncompleted games shall be given that placing.
- Any player for whom results are available for fewer than half of the largest number of games completed by any player in the block, or who has failed to win a game in the block, shall be treated as having withdrawn from the block and the results of any games he has played in it shall be ignored for the purpose of deciding the remaining placings.
- Having applied (2) above, if results are available for all the games between the remaining players, then (b) above is applied to determine the remaining placings not established under (1), as though the block had contained only those players.
- Otherwise, the remaining placings for the block are determined by a method of pairwise comparison, under which matchpoints are awarded to each player as follows, and are used to construct a matchpoint table, analogous to the American Block results table.
- For each pair of players in the block the following comparison is performed:
- subject to (B) below, in comparing the available results of two players, only the results of the game played between them, and of their games against other players whom they both have played, shall be considered;
- if the results considered give both players equal numbers of wins, they are each awarded one matchpoint; otherwise, the player with the greater number of wins is awarded two matchpoints and the other player none.
- If (other than for reasons beyond his control) a player has failed to start one or more games, he shall be deemed to have played and lost them by the maximum margin, and all his matchpoints (but not those of his opponents) shall be recalculated on that basis.
- The players are placed in descending order of matchpoints awarded.
- Where two or more players are tied on an equal number of matchpoints, and the tie must be resolved for the purpose of awarding prize(s), a play-off between players in different blocks, or qualification for another event, then the players in the tie are placed relative to each other in descending order of the number of games they have won in the games played between them. If necessary, this procedure may be repeated.
- If there is still a tie that needs to be resolved, Regulation M2(c)(6) should be applied.
- Appendix 6 provides a worked example of the application of matchpoints, for further clarification.
- INCOMPLETE MULTIPLE-LIFE BLOCKS (ASSOCIATION CROQUET).
- The games played in a block are divided into series, such that the first game to be started between any two players belongs to the first series, the second game between the same two players to the second series and so on.
- Any series for which results are available for fewer than half of the games scheduled in it shall be treated as having been abandoned and the results in it shall be ignored for the purpose of deciding the final placings.
- Having applied (2) above, any player whose final placing under (b) above, had all the other series been completed, could be predicted to be the same whatever the outcome of the uncompleted games shall be given that placing.
- Having applied (2) and (3) above, any player for whom results are available for fewer than half of the largest number of games completed by any player in a series, or who has failed to win a game in a series, shall be treated as having withdrawn from that series and the results of any games played in it shall be ignored for the purpose of deciding the remaining placings.
- Having applied (2), (3) and (4) above, if all the non-abandoned series are complete with respect to the players deemed to have competed in them, then (b) above is applied to determine the remaining placings not established under (3), as though the block had contained only those players and series.
- Otherwise, the procedure defined in F2(e)(4) above is applied, except that the following clause applies instead of F2(e)(4)(A).
- For each pair of players in each of the series the following comparison is performed:
- subject to (B) below, in comparing the available results of two players, only the results of the game played between them, and of their games against other players whom they both have played in that series, shall be considered;
- if the results considered give both players equal numbers of wins, they are each awarded one matchpoint; otherwise, the player with the greater number of wins is awarded two matchpoints and the other player none.
- INCOMPLETE BLOCKS (GOLF CROQUET) the validity of the block format depends on all the games being completed and on players making the same effort to win in each of their games: A wilful failure to do so would be misconduct to which Regulation M2(g) applies. Nevertheless, there will be circumstances, such as illness or weather, which prevent all the games scheduled being completed. If for any reason a block is not completed, the final placing will be left to the Manager's discretion; however for his guidance the following should be considered:
- Any player for whom results are available for fewer than half of the largest number of games completed by any player in the block, or who has failed to win a game, shall be treated as having withdrawn from the block and the results of any games he played in it shall be ignored for the purpose of deciding the remaining placings.
- A player has won not more than 25% of the games he has played, shall be deemed to have lost the remainder of his unplayed games.
- If a player who is reasonably placed fails to complete a game within his block for a reason totally outside his control, e.g. weather, the Manager may award the game to the player who he feels on the basis of other games played would most probably have won.
F3 SWISS EVENTS
- CONCEPT. A format in which every player plays in every round, with players paired, as far as possible, against opponents on the same score. No player should meet a player more than once. The number of rounds should normally be at least two greater than the number of rounds required in a single-life knockout event for the same entry.
- DETERMINATION OF PAIRINGS. The following rules are applied in the order in which they appear below.
- Positions in the draw for the first round are determined by lot.
- No player may play the same opponent more than once except in the final round as a tie-break under Regulation M2(c)(6).
- After each round all players are grouped in order of their cumulative scores. The players within each group are then ordered as in the previous round.
- Pairings for the next round are generated by pairing players as follows:
- the top two players;
- the bottom two players;
- the top two unpaired players;
- the bottom two unpaired players; and so on until all players are paired.
- A player who cannot be paired under (4) above is paired instead with the unpaired player whose record is closest to his own.
- BYES AND DEFAULTS
- If the number of players is odd, or becomes odd by a player withdrawing, then, for pairing purposes, an imaginary player named Bye is introduced whose score is permanently zero. If a real player is paired with Bye in any round, he is deemed to win by the maximum margin. Bye is withdrawn if the number of real players later becomes even.
- If a player defaults in any round, his opponent is deemed to win by the maximum margin.
- No player may be paired with Bye more than once.
- DETERMINATION OF THE WINNER.
- The winner is the player who has won the most games.
- If there is a tie between two players who have played each other, the winner is the winner of the game between them.
- If there is a tie between more than two players all of whom have played each other, the winner is the player who has won the most games in the games between the players in the tie.
- If there is a tie between more than two players, not all of whom have played each other, the winner is the player who has defeated all the other players in the tie.
- If there is still a tie, Regulation M2(c)(6) may be applied.
F4 PROGRESSIVE SWISS EVENTS
- CONCEPT. A Progressive Swiss is a Swiss played as a consolation event for a single-life knock out competition, which players enter as they are eliminated from the main event.
- DETERMINATION OF PAIRINGS. After each round, the players eliminated from the corresponding round of the main event are included, credited with their record in the main event. They are inserted in draw order, above any players in the consolation event with the same number of wins. Pairings are then determined as in a Swiss.
F5 FLEXIBLE SWISS EVENTS
- CONCEPT. A Flexible Swiss is similar to a Swiss in that players are paired against those with similar records, with the exception that players need not play the same number of games. A player may, with the Manager's agreement, choose to declare himself unavailable for the time being.
- SUITABILITY. A Flexible Swiss format may be used for consolation, qualifying or other events where determining a single winner is not of prime importance.
- DETERMINATION OF PAIRINGS. When the Manager decides that games are to be started, the available players who have been waiting longest, up to the number required to fill the available courts, are ranked according to the percentage of games they have won in the event (including any main event for which this is a consolation) so far. They are then paired as in Regulations F3(b)(4) and F3(b)(5).
- DETERMINATION OF THE WINNER. The winner, or qualifiers, shall be those with the greatest percentage of games won, subject to any minimum number of games declared by the Manager. In the event of a tie between two or more players who have all played each other, the winner is the player who has won the most games in the games between them. If this does not resolve the tie, Regulation M2(c)(6) may be applied or the title shared.
F6 EGYPTIAN EVENTS
An Egyptian event is played as a Flexible Swiss except that players are assigned an index which is adjusted in accordance with a published procedure depending on the result of each game. Players may be paired arbitrarily when games are to be started and the winner is determined according to index ranking rather than percentage of games won.
F7 CLASS EVENTS
- DRAW. When there are events played in classes according to handicap, players must be drawn in such classes as their official handicaps entitle them to enter, subject to Regulation M2(c)(5).
- SUBSEQUENT CHANGE. If a player is correctly drawn in a class but becomes ineligible before he begins to play in that class, he may at the Manager's discretion be removed from that class and treated as an entry accidentally included therein and accidentally omitted from the class to which he now belongs (see Regulations F1(c)(5-6)).
F8 INCOMPLETE OR UNFINISHED GAMES
The following general principles should be applied to all tournaments, irrespective of format.
- If one of the players withdraws or is scratched from a game that has started, the other player is deemed to have won it by scoring the points he had yet to make. Handicap index points and ranking results should be calculated as if the game was completed on this basis.
- Games otherwise unfinished, or which were scheduled but not started for any reason, should not be counted for handicapping or ranking purposes.
- No player should gain an advantage from failing or being unable to start or complete any of his games.
- No player should be placed at a disadvantage by being unable to start or complete any of his games for reasons beyond his control.
- HANDICAP EVENTS. In a handicap event a competitor must play each game at his correct handicap as it was at the start of the tournament. For tournaments which run over several weeks, such as the Longman or Mary Rose, each round shall count as a separate tournament for the purposes of this Regulation. A player may not play in a Calendar Fixture without an official handicap. A player should seek an official handicap before entering any handicap-limited events (see H1(f))
- HANDICAPPING PROCEDURES. Council is empowered to issue procedures for giving new handicaps and altering existing handicaps, which are published from time to time and appear on the CA web-site; see
- OFFICIAL HANDICAPS. Once assigned an initial handicap, players are responsible for recording their results and calculating any change in their handicap resulting from operation of the published procedures. They must ensure that any change is notified, via a CA Handicapper or Club Handicapper, to the CA Office. Handicaps of Associates will be recorded on the CA database and may be published in the CA Directory.
- HANDICAP RANGE. For Association Croquet, handicaps range from -3 to 5 in half-bisque increments, from 5 to 12 in whole-bisque increments and above 12 in two-bisque increments (i.e. even-numbered handicaps). For Golf Croquet handicaps range from 0 to 12 in single stroke increments.
- HANDICAP MAXIMUM LIMITS. For Association Croquet, no player whose handicap is over 20 at the time of entry may play in an event organised by the CA. This limit does not normally apply to events organised by clubs, although any limit may be advertised in advance. For Association Croquet doubles, the maximum handicap a player may have is 20. Subject to this, singles handicaps are used for doubles. For Golf Croquet there is no general maximum handicap for CA events, although certain events (e.g. the All-England Final) may have a maximum handicap specified.
- ELIGIBILITY FOR EVENTS. Limits on the handicaps of players eligible to take part may be set for some events. Where this is the case, a player whose handicap falls outside of the set limits will still be eligible to play provided that their handicap was within the set limits at the allocation date for entries, or, if no allocation date is published, one week prior to the start date of the tournament. For inter-club tournaments played over several weeks such as the Longman or Mary Rose, each round is considered to be a separate event and the closing date to be one week prior to the round being played.
H2 THE TOURNAMENT HANDICAPPER
- APPOINTMENT. Where a CA Handicapper is available to act he shall be appointed as Tournament Handicapper. Where a CA Handicapper is not available but a Club Handicapper is he shall be appointed as Tournament Handicapper. Where neither an CA Handicapper nor a Club Handicapper is available, the Tournament Manager or another suitable person shall be appointed by the Organising Body, and he will have the powers of a Club Handicapper for the duration of the tournament.
- POWERS AND DUTIES. The powers and duties of a Tournament Handicapper are as follows.
- REPORTING. To record changes to players' handicaps and report them to the CA Office.
- ALTERING. To alter official handicaps after an event, when necessary, according to published procedures.
- ENFORCING. To act as necessary under Regulation P5(b).
- APPEALS. An Appeals Committee established under Regulation O1(c) may only overturn the decision of a Tournament Handicapper if it is chaired by a CA Handicapper.
H3 SHORT CROQUET
- The reporting requirements in this section do not apply to Short Croquet, for which separate handicapping regulations apply.
M. THE MANAGER
M1 DUTIES OF THE MANAGER
The duties of the Manager of a tournament are as follows.
- ENTRIES. To advise the Organising Body of the maximum number of entries that can be accommodated.
- DRAW. To superintend or make the draw or to nominate another to do so on his behalf.
- HOURS OF PLAY. To decide when play shall start and finish each day of the tournament. Play may only continue after dusk under artificial light if this has been advertised in advance of the event.
- PRACTICE. To decide when players may practise on the courts and to inform them if they are not permitted to practise in accordance with Regulation P4(e).
- ORDER OF PLAY. To decide the order in which events and games are played.
- COURTS. To allot courts to competitors and to declare any court to be unfit for play.
- INFORMATION. To keep players and spectators informed of any alterations to the programme and of the progress of the tournament. If so agreed with the Organising Body, to submit results and other information for wider publication and to assist anyone reporting or sponsoring the tournament.
- TROPHIES. If so agreed with the Organising Body, to make arrangements for the presentation of any trophies and to obtain receipts for them.
- CONSULTATION. To discuss with the Organising Body prior to the event and agree any alterations to the published tournament programme.
- EMERGENCIES. To take such other actions as may be appropriate in an emergency to safeguard the well-being and interests of players, spectators, the Organising Body and any host club.
M2 POWERS OF THE MANAGER
The powers of the manager are as follows. These should be exercised by the manager as required, but must be exercised in a manner which is both consistent and equitable.
- ADJOURNMENT. To adjourn an unfinished game, provided that no ball is in a critical position (see AC Law 6(d)), and to record the state of the game or to nominate another to do so on his behalf.
- LEAVE. To grant or refuse leave of absence to players (see Regulation P4(c)).
- PROGRAMME. To alter the tournament programme at his discretion, namely:
- to impose time limits under Regulation T1 or T4(a).
- to shorten AC games in accordance with Laws 44, 45 and 46.
- to play the final game of an event in which the games have been shortened or subject to a time-limit as a full game.
- to play a single-life event as two-life, best of three, American or Swiss, or to play later rounds of an event advertised as best of three as best of some larger odd number.
- to alter handicap limits in class events and make consequential adjustments to entries.
- to impose tie-breaks of such form as he thinks fit, advertising the procedure to be used before the event starts where the possibility of a tie can reasonably be anticipated. For AC, the recommended procedure for a played tie-break is a game (under the same laws as the rest of the event) consisting of the peg and as many hoops as the manager considers there is time for with such time limit as the manager thinks expedient. If there is no time for, or conditions prevent, further play and sharing a trophy (or position) is considered unacceptable, lots should be drawn. For GC, the Manager should follow Regulation F and use his discretion should that not result in a solution.
- to introduce a two-life variation under Regulation F1(e).
- to introduce double-banking.
- to allow extra time for double-banked games or in an emergency.
- to specify the width of the hoops within the range advertised for the event, in the light of the conditions and standard of play.
- LATENESS. If a player is late, absent or otherwise unavailable for play (other than in accordance with Regulation P4), and it is thought or known that the player will not be available following a short delay, to impose sanction as follows.
- If it is both possible (within the constraints of Regulation F) and practicable, without significantly delaying other games or unduly disrupting the schedule, start a different game.
- Allow one player of a doubles pair to start a game in the absence of his partner, in AC deeming the other ball and in GC leaving the other ball as an outside agency, without incurring any other penalty. The missing partner may join the game later, but may not play a turn until after the opponents have:
- [AC] started at least one turn knowing that he has joined the game.
- [GC] had at least one turn knowing that he has joined the game.
- Start the game late as soon as both players are present.
- [AC] Except in Championship events, the subsequent game may be adjusted as necessary, including by one or more of the following methods:
- If the late player was to receive bisques, the number of bisques may be reduced by the proportion of time for which they were unavailable (rounding down to the nearest 0.5). If the late player was giving bisques, no adjustment should be made.
- The time limit for the game may be reduced by the time by which the player was late. Should this occur and the game is not completed by a player pegging out, the player who was available at the start shall be deemed to have won by 26 points to the number of points scored by the player who was late.
- [GC] The subsequent game may be adjusted at the Manager's discretion, after taking into account all the circumstances.
- If none of these are possible (or practicable due to the degree of lateness), to declare the late player to have lost the game (or match). Normally a player would have to be at least an hour late for this to apply for a first offence.
- General Principles
- Lateness applies to all matches, not just at the start of the day.
- Doubles pairs should be considered as a single unit for the purposes of lateness.
- Repeat lateness in the same event should be dealt with more severely than first offences.
- In extreme cases, disqualification of the offending player can be appropriate.
- WITHDRAWALS. In the event of a late withdrawal (see Regulation P3(h)) or disqualification (see (g) below):
- If the event has not yet started and it is practicable to do so, adjust or re-do the draw.
- If the event has started or it is not practicable to adjust the draw, then
- In a Knockout event (Regulation F1) treat the withdrawn player as having lost their match with their opponent progressing to the next round. In no circumstance can a beaten player be reinstated following a withdrawal.
- In a Block event (Regulation F2), apply Regulation F2(d)
- In other events, when possible and practicable without significantly delaying other games or unduly disrupting the schedule, remove the withdrawn player and allocate another game. If this is not possible (or a withdrawal occurs during a game), the withdrawn player should be considered to have lost their game and this regulation reconsidered for the following round.
- LATE ENTRIES. In the event of a late entry (see C3(c)):
- In a Knockout event (Regulation F1), apply Regulation F1(c)(5).
- In a Block event (Regulation F2), adjust or re-do the draw.
- In other events, adjust or re-do the draw.
- SANCTIONS. To impose such sanction as he sees fit, including, in the last resort, disqualification, on any player who is found to be in breach of any of these Regulations.
- APPOINTMENT. Every tournament must have a Tournament Referee, Tournament Handicapper and Manager appointed by the Organising Body. The appointment of the Tournament Handicapper must be made in accordance with Regulation H2(a). A person may be appointed to more than one of these posts.
- POWERS AND DUTIES. These officials are together responsible, each so far as his powers and duties are herein defined, for the interpretation and enforcement of the Laws and Regulations and the administration of the tournament.
- APPEALS COMMITTEE.
- The Organising Body may also appoint an appeals committee to hear appeals against decisions of the Manager or (in accordance with Regulation H2(c)) the Tournament Handicapper, or allegations that the Tournament Referee is acting improperly.
- Where possible, an appeals committee should comprise at least three suitable individuals, including one member of the organising body, to determine finally any appeal or complaint from a Player, provided that the Player has first attempted to resolve the matter with the relevant Tournament Official.
- The Appeals Committee will not hear appeals against decisions on matters of the Laws/Rules made by Referees. In these matters a decision made by the Tournament Referee will be final.
- DIRECTOR. The Organising Body may appoint a Director to liaise with the host club about arrangements before and during the tournament, such as for trophies and publicity, and with the Manager under Regulations M1(g), M1(h) and M1(i).
P1 ELIGIBILITY TO COMPETE IN CALENDAR FIXTURES
- MEMBERSHIP OF THE CROQUET ASSOCIATION.
- Subject to (2) and (3) below, only Individual Members of the CA paying the Standard, Junior or Overseas rate of subscription, and members of any overseas Associations for which reciprocal arrangements apply, may compete in Calendar Fixtures.
- Council may remove or relax this restriction for certain Calendar Fixtures ("exempt fixtures"). The following are currently exempt:
- Open Championships
- Golf Croquet Open Championships
- All-England Handicap Championship
- Golf Croquet All-England Handicap Championship
- Student Croquet Championships
- National Short Croquet
- Junior and Schools' Championships
- Grass Roots and Centre Stage Golf Croquet Tournaments
- A player in his first ever non-exempt Calendar Fixture is not subject to (1) above.
- For CA inter-club team tournaments, individual players are not subject to a membership requirement but instead the teams must be Member Clubs of the CA, consisting of players who are members of the club for which they are playing.
- A professional croquet player may not compete in a Calendar Fixture if notice has been given in the tournament programme in accordance with Regulation C2(a)(2) that professionals are excluded therefrom.
- A professional croquet player is defined as a player who has received and retained total prize money (including appearance money) exceeding the aggregate prize limit in the twelve months preceding the relevant Calendar Fixture.
- The aggregate prize limit will be determined from time to time by Council. It is currently £5,000.
- ASSUMED NAMES. An Associate may compete in a tournament under an assumed name if he has registered it with the CA Office and paid a fee of such amount as is determined from time to time by Council. The fee is currently £5.
- Doping is forbidden, in order to protect the rights and health of players and to protect the values of fair play in sport.
- The substances and procedures prohibited are those included in the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List, excluding caffeine and alcohol.
- An offence under this Regulation is committed when:
unless the substance or procedure was prescribed for medical reasons.
- a player is found to have or admits to having used a prohibited substance or procedure; or
- a player is found to have or admits to having assisted, induced or caused another player to use a prohibited substance or procedure
- A player found to have committed an offence under (3) above, or comparable regulations of other Associations recognised by Council for this purpose, shall be disqualified from any events in which he was competing at the time of, or subsequent to, the offence and shall remain ineligible to compete in Calendar Fixtures for such period as shall be determined by Council
- A player may not accept bets on himself nor place them on his immediate opponent.
- A player or official may not bet nor take bets of a significant amount on an event whose outcome he could influence.
- A player or member of the CA, whether or not he is competing in an event, may not offer any inducement to another player or official to influence it, nor may such an inducement be accepted.
- MISCONDUCT. A player who contravenes these Regulations is liable to disciplinary action by the CA, which may include disqualification or a period of ineligibility to play in future Calendar Fixtures, in addition to any sanction imposed during the event. Any action taken by the Manager under Regulations M2(g), a Referee under AC Law 55(b)(1) or GC Law 14, or the Tournament Handicapper under Regulation H2(b)(3), shall be reported to the Honorary Secretary of the CA for this purpose.
- PROCEDURE. Unless otherwise stated, entries for each individual tournament must be made to the advertised Tournament Secretary on a separate copy of the official CA form, giving all the information requested thereon. Copies of the form are printed at the back of the Calendar or can be downloaded from the CA website. Any subsequent changes to the information supplied must be notified to the Tournament Secretary before the closing date, if possible, or to the Manager thereafter.
- TIMING. For the best chance of acceptance, entries should be sent so as to arrive before the allocation date (see Regulation C2(a)(9)): all the places may be allocated on that date if sufficient entries are received. Between then and the closing date, entries will be accepted or placed on a waiting list in order of receipt. Thereafter, entries will only be accepted at the discretion of the Manager, who should be approached direct, and may be subject to a surcharge of 50% of the entry fee. The surcharge will generally be applied to CA events.
- DOUBLES. Entries for doubles events should include the name of the partner, failing which the Manager will allocate one if available.
- PAYMENT. Unless otherwise stated, entries should be accompanied by the advertised entry fee, in the form of a cheque payable to the host club, for all events entered. The entry fee includes the CA Levy and groundsmen's gratuities where appropriate. An entry may be refused if the fee has not been paid prior to the advertised date of the draw. If, however, the entry is accepted, the player becomes liable to pay the total fee and may be disqualified for non-payment.
- CONFIRMATION. Acceptance of entries will be confirmed only if accompanied by a stamped, addressed envelope, or as otherwise stated. If acknowledgement of receipt is also required, a second s.a.e. should be sent.
- REFUSAL. Entries to events which are oversubscribed will be dealt with under Regulation C3. Tournament organisers reserve the right to refuse an entry on other grounds, but are required under Regulation C3(e) to give their reason(s) to the entrant on request.
- WITHDRAWAL. If an entrant who has been accepted withdraws before the closing date, the entry fee will be refunded, less an administrative charge not exceeding £5 for each refund. A player who withdraws after the closing date is not entitled to a refund, and none will be made for CA events.
- LATE WITHDRAWAL. Only in the case of illness, injury or personal emergency may a player withdraw after the advertised date of the draw, or default during an event. Any withdrawal must be made by informing the manager (see Regulation M2(e)) and, in a Knock-Out event, any scheduled opponent, scratching if the match is progress, as soon as the player becomes aware of his inability to start or complete the event. In other events, he should inform the manager as soon as possible and seek directions. Contravention of this Regulation shall render the player liable to disciplinary action and shall be reported by the Organising Body to the Honorary Secretary of the CA for this purpose. For the avoidance of doubt, withdrawal in a multi-event tournament from a secondary event (such as a plate event) prior to the start of that event shall not be an offence under this regulation.
- OVERCOMMITTAL. All entries are accepted on the condition that a player may not continue to compete in more than one event if the Manager considers that the progress of the tournament is thereby being unduly delayed. However, if a player is scratched from an event for this reason before he has played a match, his entry fee must be refunded.
- UNDERTAKING. By entering, players agree to abide by these Regulations and any advertised variations.
P4 CONDITIONS OF PLAY
- HOURS OF PLAY. Unless otherwise advertised, play will commence at 9.30 am. The Manager may vary this time at his discretion. Players must be prepared to play until dusk.
- REPORTING. All players must report to the Manager on arrival and before leaving each day. Any player who is not present or is otherwise unable to play when called upon to do so is liable to be penalised under Regulation M2(d).
- LEAVE. Unless otherwise stated, no leave will be granted until the draw is made. Applications for leave on the first day will be considered immediately after the draw. Leave at other times should be requested as early as possible. The Manager may refuse leave in the interests of the tournament.
- Flat-soled footwear must be worn on the courts and, unless otherwise permitted, predominantly white clothing should be worn.
- In team events, such as the Inter-County Championships and Inter-Club events, teams may, subject to any dress code of the host club, elect to wear other colours of clothing, provided all team members (other than those wearing white) are wearing the same design.
- PRACTICE. Unless otherwise informed by the Manager, players may assume that they may practise during the five minutes prior to the advertised start of play on the court allocated for their first match, taking care not to loosen the hoops or the peg. During practice, hoop running may only be practiced using strokes no harder than required to send the ball seven yards and must not disturb the setting of the hoops.
- BALL JAMMED IN HOOP.
- [AC] The replacement for law 35(b) offered by law 53(b)(2) shall apply:
If a player suspects that the outcome of a stroke he has just played was affected by a ball being in contact with both uprights of a hoop simultaneously, he is entitled to have the equipment checked and, if necessary, adjusted or replaced. If it is found that the ball does touch both uprights of that hoop on some axis, he may elect to replay the stroke, unless his turn has ended for another reason.
- [GC] Reference should be made to Law 7(e)
- BEFORE PLAY. Every player is obliged to record on his entry form his current official handicap (see Regulation H1(c)) and, if different, his current club handicap. Any subsequent alteration must be reported to the Tournament Secretary before the draw or to the Manager thereafter, if it may affect the block or class into which the player is drawn, or to the Manager on arrival at the tournament otherwise. A player who enters an event which is restricted on handicap may play in the event if his handicap is outside of the specified range only under the conditions stipulated in Regulation H1(f). If a player is no longer entitled to play because of a handicap change, he must immediately inform the Tournament Secretary. A player should bring his handicap card so that it is available in case of any query.
- DURING PLAY. The calculation of the number of bisques or extra turns to be given in a game is the joint responsibility of the players, who should personally confirm each others' handicaps rather than relying on published lists. Once the game has started, the number of bisques may not be changed and the result will stand. If a player plays in a handicap event having claimed a handicap higher than that to which he is entitled or in a class event that his handicap does not entitle him to enter, he may be disqualified. In knockout events in which he has not been defeated, his place is taken by his last opponent. In American, Swiss, or Egyptian events his record is deleted from the event. As an alternative to disqualification, the Manager may allow the player to continue to play at his incorrect handicap if it is in the interests of the tournament, but the player may not win any prize.
- AFTER PLAY. Any player whose handicap has changed automatically at the end of a tournament must report that change to the Tournament Handicapper or Manager before leaving the tournament.
- CONDITIONS FOR HOLDING. Unless otherwise stated, winners of trophies may hold them for one year or until next competed for, whichever period is shorter. Winners of CA trophies may only hold them under the conditions set out in Appendix 2.
- FAILURE TO RETURN. Trophy holders are responsible for returning trophies before the end of the period during which they may hold them under (a) above. Disciplinary action, including a ban on holding trophies, may be taken against a trophy holder who fails to do so and any such cases shall be reported by the Organising Body to the Honorary Secretary of the CA for this purpose.
The initials AC and GC shall be taken to read Association Croquet or Golf Croquet as appropriate in the following Regulations. For GC these regulations shall be read in conjunction with Law 15 of the Laws of GC on refereeing. It is not considered that these regulations in any way contradict the requirements of Law 15.
- Authorised Referee: A person nominated or permitted under these regulations to assist players by making decisions on laws and facts. An authorised referee can be performing one of several roles:
- A referee on request, who generally may act only at the invitation of a player. A referee on request is said to be inactive when first authorised. He becomes active when he responds to a request by a player to exercise a power or a duty or, exceptionally, intervenes in a game. He becomes inactive again when he quits the court believing that his duties have been discharged.
- A supervising referee, who may act on his own initiative and thus is always active for games he is supervising. A supervising referee who looks after only one game is also called a referee in charge.
- Qualified Referee: A person on an official list of referees, but not necessarily authorised for the tournament.
- Tournament Referee: The official with responsibility for nominating and allocating authorised referees, and hearing appeals. The tournament referee is also an authorised referee.
It is not expected that the role of Supervising Referee will normally be used in the Domain of the CA but will be acceptable under special circumstances as it is commonly used in other parts of the world.
R2 Powers and Duties of an Active Referee
The following powers and duties apply to both supervising referees and referees on request while active, subject to the restrictions in R4 on using certain information.
- General Powers and Duties
- An active referee has power to decide all questions of fact and law. However if a referee is asked to rule on a matter for which he is insufficiently qualified, he should seek advice from or refer it to an authorised referee who is able to deal with the matter.
- An active referee must try to ensure that the match is played in accordance with the Laws and conditions for the event.
- State of the Game
- An active referee has the power to ask the players for information on the state of the game. He must do so when he requires it to make a decision, but should otherwise avoid questions which might suggest a line of play. The players are obliged to answer to the best of their knowledge.
- If an active referee has reason to think that there is any disagreement about the state of the game, he must investigate and settle the matter before play continues. This applies especially to a referee who is put in charge of a game that is already in progress.
- A referee must ask about any apparent discrepancy between the position of a clip and the course of play that he notices while he is active. [AC: This is subject to Law 23(b).]
- Ruling on a Past Incident that is in Dispute
The following regulations apply if an authorised referee is asked to rule on an incident that has already occurred:
- The referee must tell the players anything he has seen that may affect his decision. He must hear what both sides have to say, and may question them. He has the discretion to hear other witnesses. He will then give a decision to the best of his ability.
- The referee may declare a fault only on the basis of his own observations, the evidence of the striker, or, at his discretion, the evidence of well placed witnesses who have sufficient understanding of the laws. He may not do so solely on the evidence of the adversary.
- As a last resort the referee may give a compromise decision. This may involve arbitrary adjustment of the positions of the clips and balls, the number of [AC: bisques] [GC: additional strokes] outstanding or the amount of time remaining and the order of play or even restarting the game.
- An active referee who observes or suspects that an error or interference is about to occur must forestall subject to the conditions that apply to the adversary [AC: under Law 23. He must not forestall while Law 23(b) applies]. [GC: He must not forestall if he sees a player about to run a hoop out of order or play a wrong ball other than his partner ball in singles.]
- Before Watching a Stroke
If about to watch a questionable stroke, an active referee has the power to:
- ask the player what stroke he intends to play. The player must provide the referee with this information.
- choose the position from where to watch the stroke.
- ask another authorised referee to watch the stroke from a different position and tell him what he observes.
- tell the striker when he may play the stroke. If the striker plays before the referee is ready, the referee may order the stroke to be re-played
- Referee Giving Information to Players
A referee may give information to a player subject to the following regulations:
- If asked about the state of the game at any time, an active referee should do what he can to inform a player [AC:, subject to (g) below].
- An active referee must state the law on any matter if asked by a player, and may volunteer it at his discretion.
- A referee may explain the reasons for a ruling at his discretion, and must do his best to explain the reasons if a player asks him.
- A referee may not otherwise give information or advice to a player. In particular for AC a referee must not state whether a ball has been moved or shaken when a wiring lift may ensue unless asked by a player or unless a fault has occurred.
- [AC: Testing for a Wired Ball
Referees are reminded of the following laws:
- A decision whether one ball is wired from another may not be given unless the striker is claiming a wiring lift. The referee must confirm that the claimant has not played a stroke in this turn and that the adversary is responsible for the position of the relevant ball. (Law 13(e)(1))
- When judging whether one ball is wired from another, the benefit of any doubt is given to the claimant. (Law 13(e)(2)) ]
- Adjusting Court Settings
An active referee may arrange for the settings of the court to be adjusted or for special damage to be repaired, where the laws permit it. In doing so, he must:
- consider the effect on any other game on the court.
- [AC: act consistently with Law 2(b)(5) (which forbids some types of adjustments), and Laws 3(a)(3) and 3(b)(3) (which place restrictions on adjusting a hoop or the peg).]
- Entering the Court
A referee should go onto the court only when necessary and should be mindful of any double banked game.
R3 Powers of an Inactive Referee
An inactive referee may intervene in a game on his own initiative only in the following cases:
- To ensure that play is lawfully continued after an error or interference is claimed or admitted, but only if the players appear unable to deal with the issue themselves and no referee is active. If one is, and the inactive referee has relevant evidence, he may offer himself as a witness.
- On hearing a player give erroneous information on the Laws to his adversary.
- [AC: if a ball is pegged out in breach of Law 38.]
- [GC: under Law 15(b)(4)(iii) if he is personally watching the game and is able to stop play immediately after the stroke in which a hoop is incorrectly run (as required by the International Ruling on this sub-law).]
R4 Restrictions on Using Information Obtained Earlier
- The following restrictions apply only to an active referee on request and to a supervising referee who is allocated to a game after it has started. They override the powers and duties specified in R2.
- A referee may not use, or draw attention to, knowledge about the state of the game that he acquired while he was inactive.
- The same applies to knowledge acquired while he was active on a previous occasion, but only if at least one stroke has been played since he acquired the information.
- These restrictions do not apply to knowledge relating to an issue:
- to which a player has drawn attention; or
- for which the referee has intervened under R3; or
- which would be apparent to a referee who had not previously seen the game.
R5 The tournament referee and his duties
- Tournament Referee
The organising body responsible for the tournament must arrange for the tournament referee to be appointed.
- Appointment of Deputy Tournament Referees
The tournament referee must appoint a deputy if he becomes unavailable at any time. If play occurs at more than one venue at the same time, he must appoint a deputy for each venue where he is not present or ensure that appeals can be made by phone. Such a deputy has the powers and duties of the tournament referee while the latter is absent.
- Nomination of referees
The tournament referee has the power to nominate authorised referees from an official list of referees. If there are not enough qualified referees available, he has the power to nominate other suitable persons. These powers are subject to any conditions made by the organising body responsible for the tournament.
- Allocation of Referees
- The organising body responsible for the tournament has power to decide whether authorised referees will be supervising or on request.
- Subject to any such direction, the tournament referee may allocate himself or other authorised referees to supervise or be available to act on request for one or more games or courts.
- Irrespective of any such direction, the tournament referee has the power to allocate himself or another authorised referee as a referee in charge of a game.
- The tournament referee must ensure that the players are told of any referees allocated to their game or court and whether they are supervising or on request.
- If no referee has been allocated to a game, any authorised referee may act on request for it.
- Checking Courts and Equipment
The Tournament Referee must ensure that the courts and equipment are checked for conformity with the laws, regulations and advertised conditions. Hoop settings must be checked at the start of each day and may be checked between games.
[GC: Because of the harsher treatment of the hoops in GC, the Tournament Referee should check hoop settings or arrange for them to be checked at regular intervals throughout the day dependent on his assessment of the likely changes in them, which will depend on ground conditions and the standard of play.]
- Grounds for Appeals
Appeals may be made by a player against a decision of a referee only on:
- questions of law, regulations or tournament conditions; or
- [AC: rulings under Law 55; or]
- compromise decisions under R2(c)(3).
- Power to Hear an Appeal
The tournament referee or a deputy tournament referee have the sole power to hear and decide appeals, except that if such an official is a party to the appeal, either as a player or referee, someone independent must be appointed to do so.
- Appeals are Final
The decision on an appeal is final for the game.
- Limit of Claims
A player cannot appeal if he has played a stroke after the ruling was given or if the opponent has played two strokes. However, in a singles game, if the adversary is absent and performing official duties, the adversary may appeal before the first stroke of his next turn.
- Reporting of Appeals
If a situation that is subject to appeal does not seem to be covered by the laws or commentary, the tournament referee must report the facts and the decision to the appropriate national association for reference to the International Laws Committee.
R7 Players Performing Functions of Referees
- Players who are Qualified Referees
Players who entered the tournament and who are qualified referees may act as referees on request, unless the tournament referee or the organising body responsible for the tournament direct otherwise.
- Other Players
Unless the tournament referee directs otherwise, all players in the event who have played in more than three previous tournaments may decide the following matters, but only if requested by the striker or his opponent:
- watch a stroke to decide:
- where a ball crosses the boundary.
- [AC: whether a ball hits the peg or another ball.]
- [AC: whether a ball is moved or shaken, but only if specifically asked.]
- decide whether a ball:
- is on or off the court.
- breaks the plane of a hoop.
R8 Other Regulations
- The presence of a referee does not relieve a player in a game of the duty to draw attention to an irregularity that he thinks the referee may have overlooked.
- [AC: The organising body of a tournament may modify these regulations in accordance with Law 54.]
- Only an authorised referee may intervene in a game. However, any qualified referee may report a problem to the tournament referee or his deputy.
T. TIME LIMITS
Regulations T1 to T3 apply to Association Croquet only. Regulation T4 applies to Golf Croquet only.
T1 PERMITTED TIME LIMITS
- BEFORE A GAME. The Manager may impose a time limit of not less than 3 hours (2½ hours in a week-end tournament):
- on all games in an event, provided that such a time limit is advertised in advance or announced at the tournament before the start of the event, in which case, subject to Regulation M2(c)(3), it may not be removed; or
- on each game in any round of an event.
- DURING A GAME. If no time limit has been imposed under (a) above, the Manager may impose a time limit of one hour on any game that has been in progress for at least 2 hours (1½ hours in a week-end tournament).
- OTHER FORMS OF PLAY. The time limits that may be imposed under (a) above for other forms of play are as follows.
- For matches that are best of three games, cumulative limits of 4, 7 and 9 hours for the first, second and third game respectively. Time taken to complete a game after time has expired is deducted from that available for subsequent ones, subject to that game having a minimum time limit of 1½ hours. These are known as standard time limits and, unless otherwise advertised, are also the minimum time limits that may be applied.
- For 14-point games courts between full and ¾ size, not less than 1½ hours.
- For Short Croquet, or 14-point games on courts that are less than ¾ size, not less than 1 hour.
T2 EXPIRY OF TIME LIMIT
- GENERAL PROCEDURE.
- When a time limit has been imposed on a game, the players should arrange for an independent person or, failing that, one of themselves to be responsible for announcing audibly that the time limit has been reached.
- Play then continues for an extension period in which the striker completes his turn and his adversary plays one subsequent turn. For the sole purpose of determining whether the striker's turn ends before or after time is called, it is deemed that his turn ends and the adversary's turn begins as soon as the striker, in the last stroke of his turn:
- strikes the striker's ball,
- plays an air-shot,
- commits a fault, or
- plays the stroke by declaring that he will leave his ball where it lies, which in this case he may only do after any balls moved by previous strokes have come to rest and any balls in hand have been placed in lawful positions.
- The side which has scored the greater number of points at the end of the extension period is the winner. If each side has scored the same number of points, play continues and the side for which the next point is scored is the winner (any points scored subsequently in the stroke are ignored).
- HANDICAP GAMES.
- No half-bisque or bisque may be played at the end of either of the two turns which comprise the extension period. If play continues after the end of the extension period under (a)(3) above, any half-bisque or bisques may then be played.
- For the purpose of this regulation, a half bisque or bisque is played when the first stroke of that turn is played. Accordingly, if a player indicates that he intends to play a half-bisque, but does not play its first stroke before time is called, the half-bisque or bisque is deemed not to have been played and his opponent's turn is deemed to have begun before time was called.
- RESTORATION OR ADJUSTMENT OF TIME. This Regulation is subject to AC Law 53(g)(2) and Regulation R2(c)(3).
T3 LIMIT ON NUMBER OF TURNS
- APPLICABILITY. As an alternative to a one-hour time limit imposed under Regulation T1(b), or to the final hour of a time limit imposed under Regulation T1(a), the Manager may limit instead the number of further turns to twelve (exclusive of any bisque turns) to be played by each side. The general procedure is as described in Regulations T2(a)(1) and T2(a)(2), with the following provisions.
- START. The additional turns shall start after the end of the extension period defined in Regulation T2(a)(2). Regulation T2(b) will not apply.
- END. If the game has not ended before these turns are completed, the side which has scored the greater number of points is the winner. If each side has scored the same number of points, play continues and the side for which the next point is scored is the winner (any points scored subsequently in the stroke are ignored).
T4 GOLF CROQUET
- PERMITTED TIME LIMITS.
- BEFORE A GAME. The Manager may impose a time limit of not less than 45 minutes for a 13-point game, or 50 minutes if double-banked.
- on all games in an event, provided that such a time limit is advertised in advance or announced at the tournament before the start of the event, in which case, subject to Regulation M2(c)(3), it may not be removed; or
- on each game in any round of an event.
- DURING A GAME. If no time limit has been imposed under (a)(1) above, the Manager may impose a time limit of not less than a further 15 minutes on any game that has been in progress for at least 45 minutes (50 minutes with double banking).
- OTHER FORMS OF PLAY. The time limits that may be imposed under (a)(1) above for other forms of play are as follows.
- For matches that are best of three games, cumulative limits of 50, 90 and 120 minutes for the first, second and third game respectively; time taken to complete a game after time has expired is deducted from that available for subsequent ones. If a match consists of more than three games, the time limits shall be extended by 30 minutes for each additional game. These are known as standard time limits and, unless otherwise advertised, are also the minimum time limits that may be applied.
- For 19-point games, the minimum time limits specified in (a)(1) and (a)(2) above will be 60 minutes or 70 minutes if double banked.
- EXPIRY OF TIME LIMIT.
- When the time allowed expires, play shall continue for a further eight strokes. After these strokes, the winner shall be the side which has scored the most points.
- If the scores are equal and no announcement has been made before the start of the event that a tied outcome is acceptable, play then continues and the side for which the next point is scored shall be the winner (any points scored subsequently in the stroke are ignored).
- In handicap games, an extra turn may not be played after the expiry of the time limit, except that an unused extra turn may be played at any time after the first stroke played under (b)(2) above because the scores are still level.
- For the sole purpose of determining whether the striker's turn ends before or after time is called, it is deemed that his turn ends and the adversary's turn begins as soon as he strikes the striker's ball.
APPENDIX 1 - Hoop Setting, Ball Specification and Inspection Requirements
- ACCEPTANCE STANDARDS
- HOOP WIDTH. The clearance is defined as the difference between the distance between the inside edges of the uprights at half-ball height and the maximum diameter of the largest ball to be used on the court. Unless otherwise advertised in the Fixtures Calendar, or as stated below, hoops must be set such that the clearance is as near as possible to:
Tolerances on hoop settings are -0% and +50% in each case. The Manager may, in accordance with Regulation M2.C.10, alter the advertised clearance by up to 50% in either direction, provided that this and the reason for it is publicised before play starts that day.
- 1/32" for Championship events (see Appendix 3)
- 1/16" for events played under conditions of Advanced Play
- 1/8" for handicap and other, including mixed, events
- HOOP RIGIDITY. Hoops must be set firmly and securely such that no perceptible movement occurs when the crown is pushed/pulled with considerable force.
- GROUND CONDITION LOCAL TO HOOPS. Hoops should be set in ground that is level and flat. The jaws of hoops should be free of "rabbit runs" and the hoop approach areas should not contain defects that will deflect a ball from its intended course.
- BALL ROUNDNESS. The diameters of all balls used on a court are to differ by no more than 1/32" for Championship conditions and 1/16" for others.
- INSPECTION. The Referee of the Tournament or his agent shall inspect every hoop each morning before play begins for both width and rigidity. Hoops which do not satisfy the acceptance standards should be re-set.
- NEW HOOP HOLES. To satisfy the acceptance standards on hoop width and rigidity and maintain them throughout a tournament, the hoops should be set into new holes immediately prior to the tournament. The objective is to generate a tight grip on the carrots throughout the tournament without the need for excessive packing in the later stages. The size and depth of the initial "core" that is removed should be minimised, depending on the nature of the ground. For soft ground, no core should be taken nor should any substitute carrots be used to start the holes - just drive the specified hoop into the ground - preferably using a hoop clamp (such as that available from the CA Shop) set to the correct width. Where the ground is harder, a small core might have to be taken and/ or a substitute carrot used to start the hole. Old hoop holes should be closed up with a screwdriver or similar (if no cores are taken) or filled with no more material than was removed (where coring is unavoidable), to prevent the build-up of hills over time. Any surface imperfections should be filled daily, as necessary, with grass clippings.
- INITIAL SETTING. Initially, hoop carrots may be left standing slightly proud of the ground (say 1/2") to allow a margin for further penetration and, therefore, improved ground grip. However, should a protruding carrot interfere with the state of the game or an intended stroke, the striker should ask a Referee that the relevant hoop be knocked into the ground until the outer edge of the top of each carrot is level with the surface of the court whilst maintaining the width of the hoop at half-ball height. Any balls adjacent to the hoop must be carefully marked so that they can be accurately replaced should they be moved during the operation. No adjustment to the position of balls should be made under AC Law 3(b)(3). The protruding carrots should be ignored when applying AC Laws 13, 14 or 17; if they do not interfere, any tests should be conducted before adjusting the hoop, otherwise the hoop should be adjusted first.
APPENDIX 2 - CA Trophies
A Guidance Note for Winners of CA Trophies
- The CA does not, at the present time, insure its various trophies because the cost of doing so has become prohibitive. It is accepted that if loss occurs a replacement will be found, either from the small store of redundant trophies or by purchase of a new trophy.
- The holder of a trophy who takes reasonable care of it while it is in his or her possession will not be held legally liable for its loss. Those who feel that such loss would nevertheless be an embarrassment to them are advised to include the trophy on their household contents insurance policy schedule.
- Holders of trophies will be asked to sign an official CA receipt for each trophy, its plinth and any associated carrying box.
- Holders are also required to look after trophies with reasonable care and to return them to the CA Office by the 1st April of the following year. The trophies will then be retained by the CA who will arrange transport to the next venue at which the event occurs.
- The CA, so as to maintain consistency and prevent damage, is responsible for and will undertake all necessary engraving of its trophies. Arrangements will therefore be made to engrave all trophies at the same time during the month of April. Holders of trophies must not arrange to have them engraved without obtaining the approval of the Chairman of the Tournament Committee.
- It is CA policy that in no circumstances can a CA trophy be taken outside the boundaries of the CA domain (England, Wales, Northern Ireland, the Channel Isles and the Isle of Man) and Scotland.
APPENDIX 3 - Titles for Events in the CA Domain
In order that the names of tournaments run within the CA domain are consistent and players understand the significance of the titles, the following will apply:
- WORLD. This word must only be used when the tournament is being organised by the World Croquet Federation in the CA domain with the assistance of the CA.
- EUROPEAN. Similarly this word must only be used for European events organised by the European Croquet Federation. Normally these will have a major input from the CA and the host club.
- CHAMPIONSHIP. Permission to use this designation must be obtained from the Tournament Committee. Grades of championship are defined in Appendix 4.
- OPEN. Tournaments containing this word must be level play and have no restriction on entry other than as provided for in Regulations P1 and C3.
An exception will be permitted where there is a historical justification, for example when the term "Championship" is used within the name of a long-standing trophy.
APPENDIX 4 - Definitions for Championships and First-Class Events
- ASSOCIATION CROQUET. The following definitions will apply:
- GRADE 1 CHAMPIONSHIPS. These events are top-level Championships organised by or in association with the CA, which may also be designated 'Open' events. They will be Advanced Play, use hoops set to Championship standards and be best of three (or greater) knockouts, possibly preceded by qualifying rounds in the form of blocks or a Swiss. Some events will be restricted to male or female entrants only; apart from this entry will be unrestricted, except to eliminate a surplus of entries by ranking (Dynamic Grade (DG) for AC, CGS Grade for GC).
- GRADE 2 CHAMPIONSHIPS. These are events designated or approved by the CA. They will be Advanced Play, use hoops set to Championship standards and be best of three (or greater) knockout or draw and process format. Entry will be unrestricted except to eliminate a surplus of entries by ranking (Dynamic Grade (DG) for AC, CGS Grade for GC).
- GRADE 3 CHAMPIONSHIPS. These are other level-play events organised or approved the CA. Entry may be restricted to a particular class (e.g. by age or gender) of entrant with no lower handicap or ranking or grade restriction. Special conditions may be imposed.
- FIRST-CLASS EVENTS. A First-Class event is an event played under the conditions of Advanced Play with unrestricted entry except for restrictions excluding men, women, non-Associates, players with handicaps over a stated level, ranking or grade below a stated level, or other restrictions approved by council.
- GOLF CROQUET. At this stage of development of the Golf Croquet calendar no grading of Championships has yet been agreed.
APPENDIX 5 - Approved Laws Variations
The following optional laws variations are approved by Council under clause 27(b) of the CA Constitution.
1. SUPER-ADVANCED VARIATIONS TO LAWS (ASSOCIATION CROQUET)
Following discussions about the one-sidedness of many games of Association Croquet at the very top level, the AC Laws Committee and Council exercised its power under clause 27(b) of the CA Constitution to authorise the adoption of the Super-Advanced variation of the Laws. The variation contains two elements:
- ADDITIONAL LIFT - Law 36 is modified by inserting:
Law 36(f) LIFT, CONTACT OR FREE PLACEMENT:
- A lift as specified in Law 36(a) is also available if the striker's ball of the preceding turn scored hoop 4 for itself in that turn.
- A lift or contact as specified in Law 36(b) is also available if the striker's ball of the preceding turn scored both hoops 4 and 1-back for itself in that turn and its partner ball had not scored hoop 4 before that turn.
- If the striker's ball of the preceding turn scored hoops 4 and 4-back in that turn and its partner ball had not scored hoop 4 before that turn, the striker may start his turn:
- as in Laws 36(a)(1), 36(a)(2) or 36(b)(2); or
- subject to (4), by lifting either ball of his side that can lawfully be played, even if it is in contact with one or more balls, and playing it from any unoccupied position on the court (including a position within the yard-line area). This is known as a free placement.
- Neither player is entitled to a free placement if any ball has been pegged out in the game.
- Law 36(e) and other Laws applicable to Law 36 (e.g. Laws 6(c)(2)(A), 8(b), 9(b)(1), 14(d)(4)(B), 27(g) and Appendices 5 and 6, but not Laws 27(f) or 45) also apply to this variation, with the addition of a free placement as one of the striker's options when available.
- RESTRICTED OPENING
- If, in the first stroke of the game, the striker's ball does not leave the court, hit or pass through a hoop, or hit the peg, then the adversary may elect either:
After this is done, the turn ends.
- to leave the ball where it lies; or
- to have the ball placed on any point on either baulk-line as the striker chooses.
2. TRIAL AC HANDICAP DOUBLES VARIATION
Following discussions about the advantage enjoyed by handicap doubles pairs in which one of the players has a very low handicap, the Handicap Committee asked the AC Laws Committee and Council to exercise its power under clause 27(b) of the CA Constitution to authorise the adoption of the following temporary variation of the laws. The variation will be mandatory for tournaments organised by the CA in 2013, and may be used at other events if advertised before the start of play.
- Law 43(a) is replaced by:
NUMBER OF BISQUES TO BE GIVEN Law 37(b)(1) does not apply. The number of bisques to be given by the lower-handicapped side to the higher is the difference between their handicaps. The handicap of a side is calculated by taking the mean of the indexes associated with the trigger points for the handicaps of its members, finding the nearest trigger point with an index equal to or lower than that, and taking the handicap associated with it.
||-1 and 18
||-> (2250 + 1000)/2 = 1625 -> 1600 -> Hcp 4|
||4 and 9
||-> (1600 + 1300)/2 = 1450 -> 1450 -> Hcp 6|
|So B receives 2 bisques (whereas under the standard system A would receive 2 bisques)|
3. TRIAL WRONG BALL LAW
At the CA Council meeting on Sat 23 March 2013, Council approved the use of a trial Wrong Ball Law in the Domain of the CA for the 2013 domestic season with some limitations on its use.
This trial variation to Law 11 is detailed here
4. BALLS JAMMED IN HOOPS
Attention is also drawn to Regulation P4(f)
APPENDIX 6 - Example of the use of Matchpoints to Resolve Incomplete (Association Croquet) Blockss
This appendix is intended to clarify Regulation F2(e)(4) by providing a worked example. The principle is that each player is given a matchpoint score, calculated by comparing his results with those of each of the other players in turn: he receives two points for each other player with a lower number of wins and one point for each other player with the same number of wins, in each case taking into account only those games in which either they have played each other or they both have played an opponent.
Example Block with results as played:
Assume that B v E, D v E and D v F were uncompleted because of flooding, i.e. none of the players is to be held responsible.
The matchpoint table is:
A's matchpoints are calculated as follows:
- A v B: A's game against E is ignored as B hadn't played E. In their remaining games they both had two wins, so tie on one matchpoint each.
- A v C: All games count as they have both played each other and the entire field. 2 wins each, so one matchpoint each.
- A v D: Only their games against each other, B, and C count, as D had not played E or F. Both had 2 wins so one matchpoint each.
- A v E: Only their games against each other, C, and F count, as E had not played B or D.
A had one win, E two, so E gets both matchpoints.
- A v F: A v D ignored; 2 wins each, so one matchpoint each.
Overall D and E tie for first place (their records are symmetrical and they didn't play each other, so there is nothing to separate them without some further play). F takes 3rd place ahead of A as F beat A; similarly, C is 5th.
If E had got cold feet and scratched before starting his remaining games, the matchpoints would instead be:
Note firstly that only E's matchpoints change; no-one else's are affected by E's decision to scratch. E's matchpoints are now recalculated as follows:
- E v A: E is deemed to have lost to B, so A's win against B counts. 2 wins each, so one matchpoint for E.
- E v B: B's win against D stands, and he is treated as having beaten E. B therefore has 3 wins against E's 2, so E gets no points.
On matchpoints, B, C and E all tie for 4th place on 3 points each. If this had to be resolved, C and E each won 1 game of those played between the three of them, so B is 6th. Applying Regulation F2(e)(4)(D) again, E beat C so is 4th, leaving C 5th.
APPENDIX 7 - Impasse (Association Croquet)
An impasse exists when neither player is willing to make significant progress. Impasses shall be resolved according to the conditions advertised for the event, failing which:
- Either side may appeal to a referee that an impasse exists when it is their turn to play, or a referee in charge may declare that an impasse exists.
- If, on appeal, the referee decides that there is no impasse, play will continue normally. The referee will monitor the game until the tactical situation changes significantly, or until the referee decides that an impasse now exists.
- Once the referee has declared an impasse, play will continue normally for ten further turns (20 if there are only two balls in the game and both are for the peg). If the impasse still exists at the end of this period, the following remedies will be applied:
- All balls still in play are removed from the lawn and then played back into the game from baulk. Except in (3) below, the clips are not moved. A coin toss will determine which side may choose to play first or second, unless there are only three balls remaining in the game, in which case the side with two balls will play first.
- If there are three or four balls still in the game, the game shall proceed normally.
- If only two balls remain in the game and both are for the peg, a tie-break contesting the last four hoops and the peg shall be played (the winning score will be recorded as +1 or 26-25). Both players are entitled to lifts under Law 36 of the Laws of Association Croquet (if it applies to the game), irrespective of who pegged out the other balls.
- If only two balls remain in the game and they are not both for the peg, play shall proceed normally except that no roquet will be allowed until the first stroke of:
If, during the prohibition on roquets, the striker's ball hits the opponent's ball, the stroke will be treated as though the opponent's ball were dead.
- the eleventh turn after the restart; or
- the first turn after one in which a hoop point has been scored other than by peeling