The Rules of Golf Croquet (6th Edition, 2022)
The Rules contained herein are the 6th Edition of the WCF Rules of Golf Croquet.
They have been adopted by Croquet England for use in England from 27 March 2022.
From time to time, Official Rulings and Commentary may be issued in order to clarify certain rules based on practical experience.
The Rules, including Appendices 1 to 3 are Copyright © 2022 the World Croquet Federation.
Appendices 4 and 5 are Copyright © 2022 Croquet England.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including information storage and retrieval mechanisms, without the prior permission in writing from the World Croquet Federation or, in respect of Appendices 4 and 5, from Croquet England.
Previous editions published in 2000, 2005, 2008, 2013 and 2018.
Sixth Edition March 2022.
The key message about the 6th edition of the WCF Rules of Golf Croquet is that there have been no major changes to how the game of Golf Croquet is played.
The WCF Golf Croquet Rules Committee had four major objectives for the 6th Edition, namely, to incorporate the Official Rulings published on 1 October 2018, to improve clarity and ease of use and fill gaps, to take further steps to align the Rules with the Laws of Association Croquet and to add rules dealing with impasses, time-limited games and Advantage GC.
Clarity and ease of use
Every effort has been made to ensure that language and forms of expression are used consistently throughout the Rules.
The Glossary introduced in the 5th Edition has been expanded to include more defined terms and thereby shorten and clarify the main text. References to Glossary defined terms are italicised in the main text to highlight the fact that it is a defined term.
The positions of Rules 17 and 18 in the 5th Edition have been exchanged. Rule 17 now covers penalty areas and penalty area continuation and Rule 18 covers alternative colours and double-banking. This arrangement means that Rules 1 to 17 now deal with the standard game of single-banked, untimed level play and Rule 18 to 21 deal with the variations, namely double-banking, time limited games, handicap play and advantage play. The main text of Rules 1 to 17 has been shortened and clarified by removing all references to matters covered in Rules 18 to 21 and replacing these references by "signposts" at the end of any affected rule. Each signpost states the relevant provision in Rules 18 to 21 within square brackets and in smaller font.
Further alignment with the Laws of Association Croquet
The 7th Edition of the AC Laws includes a revised approach to determining marginal situations connected with the scoring of a hoop point, a new law dealing with time-limited games and a table which summarises the treatment of dynamic and marginal static decisions. The 6th Edition of the GC Rules has adopted the AC approach to determining marginal situations and a rule dealing with time-limited games (see Rule 19). An appendix which summarises the treatment of dynamic and marginal static decisions has been added as Appendix 1 at the end of the Rules.
There have been no major changes to the way the game is played other than the recognition of Advantage GC as a permitted variant. Rule 21 has been added to provide governance for this new form of handicap play that relies on setting different starting scores instead of extra strokes. The table containing the starting scores for different handicap combinations is available on the WCF website (see the link in Rule 21.4).
Rule 5 (The start)
One of the specific questions in the WCF's consultation on the 6th Edition was about allowing the side that wins the toss at the start of a match to choose colours instead of being obliged to play first. Few responses were received and these did not show a clear preference between making the change and retaining the existing rule. The option to allow the side winning the toss to choose colours has been added to Rule 5.1 on the grounds that it can do no harm. The first stroke of the game is still played with the blue ball or the equivalent alternative colour.
Rule 10 (Playing a wrong ball)
The wrong ball rule has traditionally given rise to more queries than any other rule throughout the history of the game. It has now been re-organised and shortened with the intention of improving its clarity and ease of use.
The special treatment of wrong balls in the first four turns of the game has been deleted apart from the exchange of colours case.
The obligation to forestall play if it is observed that a player has played a wrong ball has been reinforced in Rule 10.2.2 by the reference to Rule 16.2.9. This makes it a form of unacceptable behaviour to deliberately refuse to forestall play and play a stroke instead. This can lead to the stroke being annulled.
There are now just three classes of wrong ball set out in Rules 10.3 to 10.5. Two of these are less common and one, where the striker's side plays out of sequence or plays an opponent ball, is the most common. Rule 10 can be used as a checklist so that the reader can operate by first testing whether Rule 10.3 applies, then whether Rule 10.4 applies and, finally, whether Rule 10.5 applies. The very great majority of cases will be covered by Rule 10.5.
Rule 10.6 now deals with the status of earlier strokes and points in all types of wrong ball and Rule 10.7 provides guidance when it is discovered that a fault has been committed in a stroke in which a wrong ball was played.
The case where one side plays successive strokes is now covered in Rule 10.3 by the wider error of playing when not entitled.
The WCF's consultation included a specific question about the possible extension of remedies after the striker's side has played a wrong ball. Few responses were received and these did not show a clear preference so no change has been made in this respect.
Appendix 4 has been added by the Croquet England GCRC to provide help in applying Rule 10. The table is designed to be an easy-to-use on-court tool. The reader should start at the top and read downwards until the appropriate row is reached (which will almost always be one of the last three rows). In cases of doubt the text of the Rule should be consulted.
Rule 19 (Time-limited games)
The introduction of this rule replaces Croquet England's Appendix 3 in the 5th Edition without any substantive change. Rule 19.1.2 defines the last turn of the game (or the last turn before the start of any extension period) as the turn which includes the last stroke played before time expires. "Played" means when the mallet struck the ball. This is identical in effect to the approach in Appendix 3 (5th Edition) where, for this purpose only, the striker's turn was deemed to end when the ball was struck.
Assisting players with poor hearing
Communication with the opposing side is required by the Rules in relation to forestalling play, giving a direction that a ball is to be played next from a penalty area, announcing that time has expired and, in handicap play, warning the receiver's opponent that an extra stroke might be played. In the 5th Edition, it was sufficient to do so in a manner suitable for a recipient with normal hearing.
A more demanding standard has been introduced to meet the needs of players with poor hearing. It is now required to communicate "in a manner that could reasonably be expected to convey" the relevant information "to those to whom it is addressed". This means taking active steps to ensure that the opposing side is made aware of what has been communicated. This may involve making gestures as well as speech that is louder than normal.
Other minor amendments
Minor amendments have been made to some other Rules in order to fill gaps and improve clarity and ease of use. The most significant are set out below.
Rule 6.3.6 (Annulment) introduces the concept of annulling a stroke which means that it is treated as if it had not been played. Annulment provides a convenient and economical remedy in some situations, namely Rule 10.3.3 (playing when not entitled), Rule 13 (playing after play has been forestalled), Rule 20.5.3 (playing an extra stroke when not entitled), Rule 20.6.2 (playing a stroke after ignoring the receiver's warning) and Rule 20.7.2 (playing an extra stroke unlawfully).
Rule 7 (Scoring a hoop point) has been amended to make it as consistent as possible with AC Law 20 while recognising that, unlike in AC, the scoring of a point changes the hoop in order for all four balls.
Rule 7.9 (Hoop contested or run out of order) now directs that play continues in sequence when a player discovers the error while a new Rule 15.4 permits a referee to intervene and direct a penalty area continuation if they observe that both sides are contesting a hoop out of order.
Rule 8 The offside rule has been made clearer and more comprehensive.
Rules 9.1 and 9.2 have been clarified.
Rule 9.5 (Interference by defective equipment) has been refreshed and reorganised, principally to incorporate two Official Rulings.
A new Rule 15.3 dealing with impasses has been added which reflects current practice.
Rule 16.2.7(e) replaces Rule 15.1.5 in the 5th Edition by making it a form of unacceptable behaviour to deliberately or repeatedly fail to warn those in the vicinity before playing a forceful stroke.
Guidance on applying Rule 11
Appendix 5 does not form part of the WCF Rules but is provided by Croquet England's GC Rules Committee to give guidance to referees and players on faults which may arise from hammer strokes, jump strokes, damage to the court surface and double-tap and crush situations.
Golf Croquet Rules Committee
THE WCF RULES OF GOLF CROQUET
The terms set out below are listed alphabetically and are shown in italics when used in the Rules. A description given below may be subject to a more detailed definition given in the relevant rule.
Annulled If a stroke is annulled, it is treated as if it had not been played (see Rule 6.3.6).
Body References to touching or other contact with a player's body include touching or contact with any item worn or carried by the player, other than a mallet.
Boundary The inner edge of any boundary marking (see Rule 2.2.2).
Error An irregularity that occurs when a player plays a wrong ball (see Rule 10), commits a fault (see Rule 11), is guilty of overlapping play (see Rule 12) or plays after play has been forestalled (see Rule 13).
Forestall play A player or referee forestalls play to fulfil their responsibility for the fair and correct application of these Rules by requesting that play is to stop. The request is to be made in a manner that can reasonably be expected to convey the request to those to whom it is addressed.
Hoop in order The hoop in order is the next hoop to be run which will result in a point being scored (see Rule 7.4.1).
Jammed ball A ball that is found to touch both uprights of a hoop simultaneously on some axis (see Rule 9.5).
Jaws The jaws of a hoop comprise the space enclosed by and including the inner surfaces of the uprights, the surface created by raising a straight edge touching both hoop uprights from the ground to the crown of the hoop on the playing side of the hoop and the equivalent surface on the non-playing side of the hoop (see Rule 7.1 and Diagram 2).
Loose impediment A small, removable object on the court surface. Examples include worm casts, leaves, nuts, twigs, refuse or similar material.
Match A contest between two sides, consisting of one or more games.
Offside ball A ball that may be subject to an offside direction.
Offside opponent The side opposing an offside owner.
Offside owner The side that owns an offside ball.
Outside agency An agency that may not lawfully affect play (see Rule 4.1).
Penalty area A semi-circular area on the court, with a radius of one yard (see Rule 17.1.1).
Penalty area continuation A method of continuing a game (see Rule 17.2).
Previous stroke The stroke before the last stroke played.
Receiver A player entitled to play an extra stroke in a handicap game (see Rule 20).
Replaced Unless the relevant rule directs otherwise, a ball directed to be "replaced" is replaced in the position it occupied before it moved, whether as the result of a stroke or for another reason.
Start area Any position on the court within one yard of corner IV or within an adjacent area determined by the organising body.
Striker The owner of the striker's ball.
Striker's ball Normally, the ball that follows next in colour sequence after the ball played in the last stroke (but see Rules 1.2 and 6.3.4).
Striking period A period of time which starts when a player has taken a stance with apparent intent to play a stroke and ends when the player quits the stance under control or, if sooner, when the turn ends (but see Rule 6.2.2).
Weather Wind, rain or any other form of precipitation.
1. OUTLINE OF THE GAME
1.1 How the game is played
1.1.1 The game is played by striking a ball with a mallet. There are two opposing sides which play in alternate turns, each turn containing one stroke (subject to exceptions set out in these Rules).
1.1.2 The game may be played as either singles with one player on each side, or doubles with two. In doubles, each player of a side plays only one ball throughout the game.
1.1.3 One side plays with the blue and black balls and the opposing side with the red and yellow balls.
[Use of alternative colours: see Rule 18.1]
1.2 Colour sequence, Striker's ball and Striker
1.2.1 The balls are to be played in the colour sequence blue, red, black and yellow.
1.2.2 Unless otherwise directed or permitted by these Rules, at the end of each turn, after whichever ball was played in the last stroke, the next ball in colour sequence becomes the striker's ball for the next stroke and its owner becomes the striker.
1.3 Object of the game
1.3.3 If one or more hoops are contested or run out of order, Rules 7.9 and 15.4 apply.
1.4.1 A game is a contest for the best of 7, 13 or 19 points and ends at the end of the turn in which one side wins the game by scoring a majority of the points to be played, subject to Rules 1.4.5 and 1.4.6 and any remedies under Rules 8 to 16.
1.4.2 In a 7 point game the first six hoops are contested in the order hoop 1 to hoop 6. If required, the seventh point is scored by contesting hoop 1 again.
1.4.3 In a 13 point game the first 12 hoops are contested in the order hoop 1 to hoop 12. If required, the 13th point is scored by contesting hoop 3 again.
1.4.4 In a 19 point game the first 12 hoops are contested in the order hoop 1 to hoop 12 and the next six hoops in the order hoops 3, 4, 1, 2, 11 and 12 as hoops 13 to 18 respectively. If required, the 19th point is scored by contesting hoop 3 again.
1.4.5 In tournament and team play, the organising body may specify an alternative method of determining when a game ends.
1.4.6 If the sides leave the court or start another game, having agreed which side has won the game, then the game has ended with the agreed result.
1.5.2 In tournament and team play, a match may consist of two games.
All dimensions in these Rules are stated in imperial units, but metric units based on the equivalents stated in Appendix 2 are also permissible. Only one system of units may be used in respect of a court.
2. THE COURT
2.1 The standard court
2.1.1 The standard court is a rectangle measuring 28 by 35 yards. Its corners are known as I, II, III and IV. See Diagram 1.
2.1.2 The length and width of the court are each subject to a tolerance of +/- 6 inches.
2.2.3 Where more than one boundary marking is visible and it is not obvious which one should be used, the most recent defines the actual boundary or, if that cannot be determined, the innermost defines the actual boundary. If the boundary marking is not straight, the actual boundary at any point is the straight line which best fits the inner edge of the boundary marking in the vicinity of that point.
2.3 Peg and hoops
2.3.1 Subject to Rule 2.3.3, the peg is set in the centre of the court.
2.3.2 There are six hoops which are set parallel to the north and south boundaries. Subject to Rule 2.3.3, the centres of the two inner hoops are 7 yards to the north and south of the peg; the centres of the four outer hoops are 7 yards from the adjacent boundaries.
2.3.3 The positions of each hoop and the peg are subject to a tolerance of up to 12 inches provided that the lines joining the centres of hoops 1 and 2, 3 and 4, and 5 and 6 remain visually parallel to the east and west boundaries, and that the peg lies on the lines joining the centres of hoops 1 and 3, 2 and 4, and 5 and 6.
2.4 Smaller courts
If the available area is too small for a standard court, a smaller court may be laid out by retaining the court proportions of five units long by four units wide but using a unit shorter than the standard 7 yards. In tournament and team play, the organising body may approve other proportions and dimensions.
2.5 Missing or misplaced peg or hoop
2.5.1 If it is discovered that a game is being played with a hoop or the peg missing or significantly misplaced, the item is to be correctly placed and play is to continue in accordance with these Rules. All points already scored in otherwise lawful play are counted.
2.5.2 If a ball is located on the court where a hoop or the peg is to be correctly placed, the ball is to be placed as its owner decides so that it is touching the item when it has been correctly placed.
The peg is a rigid cylinder with a height above the ground of 18 inches and a uniform diameter of 1½ inches. The tolerance for the height is +/- 1 inch. The tolerance for the diameter is +/- ¼ inch.
The peg should be painted white to a height of at least 6 inches above the ground and may have blue, red, black and yellow, and/or green, pink, brown and white, bands descending in that order from the top.
3.1.3 Proper state
(a) The peg is to be vertical and firmly fixed.
(b) If the peg is observed to be misaligned or loose at any time, the striker may require that it be corrected. Any correction is to be carried out immediately under the supervision of both sides (or a referee, if present), except when a ball is in contact with the peg or would be brought into contact with it by such a correction, in which case the peg is not to be corrected until the ball has been played away from it. Following any such correction, the positions of the balls are to be adjusted if necessary to ensure that the striker gains no advantage thereby.
(a) Each hoop is made of solid metal and consists of two uprights connected by a crown. The crown is to be straight and at right angles to the uprights. A hoop is to be 12 inches in height above the ground measured to the top of the crown. The tolerance for the height is + ½ inch / - 1 inch.
(b) The uprights and the crown are to have a uniform diameter above the ground of between 5/8 inch and ¾ inch, with a tolerance of 1/16 inch, although minor deviations at the top and bottom of the uprights are permitted. Alternatively, the crown of the hoop may be of square cross-section with sides of between 5/8 inch and ¾ inch, with a tolerance of 1/16 inch and with rounded edges.
(c) The inner surfaces of the uprights are to be approximately parallel and not less than 3 11/16 inches or more than 4 inches apart. However, in tournament and team play, the organising body may specify a narrower internal width as either the distance between the uprights or the gap between a ball and the inner surface of one upright when the ball is placed on the ground halfway through the hoop and touching the other upright. Each hoop on a court is to have the same width within a tolerance of 1/32 inch.
The hoops may be left unpainted or coloured white and, in addition, the crown of the first hoop may be coloured blue and that of the final hoop may be coloured red. It is also permissible for the hoops to be coloured as required for Association Croquet.
3.2.3 Proper state
(a) Each hoop is to be vertical and firmly fixed.
(b) If a hoop is observed to be misaligned or loose at any time, the striker may require that it be corrected. Any correction is to be carried out immediately under the supervision of both sides (or a referee, if present), except when a ball is in contact with the hoop or would be brought into contact with it by such a correction, in which case the hoop is not to be corrected until the ball has been played away from it. Following any such correction, the positions of the balls are to be adjusted if necessary to ensure that the striker gains no advantage thereby.
(c) The width and height of a hoop may be checked at the request of either side before the start of a game and, unless Rule 9.5 applies, at the joint request of both sides during a game.
A ball is to be 35/8 inches in diameter with a tolerance of +/- 1/32 inch and is to weigh 16 ounces with a tolerance of +/- ¼ ounce.
3.3.2 Additional requirements
In tournament and team play, the organising body may specify additional requirements.
A mallet consists of a head with a shaft firmly connected to its mid-point and at right angles to it for at least the bottom 12 inches, so that they function as one unit during play. Alternative but equivalent arrangements are also permitted provided that the playing characteristics of the mallet do not depend on which end-face of the head is used to strike a ball.
A grip of any material may be attached to the shaft, but neither it nor the shaft shall be moulded with an impression of any part of the player's hands.
(a) The head is to be rigid and may be made of any suitable materials. It is to have essentially identical playing characteristics regardless of which end is used to strike the ball. Its end-faces are to be parallel, essentially identical and flat, though fine grooves are permitted.
(b) The edges of each end-face should be of a shape and material unlikely to damage the balls and, however shaped or bevelled, the edges are not part of the end-face.
3.4.4 Aiming devices
No mirrors, pointers or other devices intended to assist the aiming or playing of a stroke may be attached to any part of the mallet. However, the shaft need not be straight and the head may bear sighting lines.
3.4.5 Disabled players
A disabled player may use a mallet with an appropriately modified shaft or artificial aids provided that no advantage is gained thereby compared to a player without that disability using a conventional mallet.
(a) A mallet may not be exchanged for another during a game unless it is no longer available or its use is significantly affected by accidental damage or a mechanical or structural defect that occurred or was discovered during the game. A damaged mallet may be used only if the player gains no advantage thereby. If the head is detachable from the shaft, neither may be exchanged except as provided for in this rule.
(b) The playing characteristics of a mallet may never be changed during a game, except to restore its initial state following a change to it. Changing the grip to enable the player to cope with different weather conditions does not constitute changing the playing characteristics. If a mallet is exchanged for another under Rule 3.4.6(a) the playing characteristics of the replacement need not be the same as those of the original.
4. OUTSIDE AGENCIES AND ACCESSORIES
4.1 Outside agencies
4.1.1 An outside agency is any agency that may not lawfully affect play. Examples include animals, spectators, a referee other than the players, the players or equipment of another game, accessories and other stray objects. However, the following are not outside agencies:
(a) a loose impediment;
(c) a scoring clip attached to a hoop even if it belongs to another game.
4.1.2 In certain circumstances:
(a) Accessories, including those described in Rules 4.2.2 to 4.2.6 below, may be supplied for guidance, convenience and decoration.
(b) Any accessory, including a scoring clip attached to a hoop, may be removed temporarily by either side if it might affect the playing or outcome of the next stroke.
4.2.2 Alternative colours post
A post displaying alternative colour sequences may be located just off the court.
4.2.3 Ball restraints
(a) A check fence or other suitable equipment high enough to arrest the progress of balls may be placed around the boundary.
4.2.4 Corner flags
(a) Corner flags coloured blue, red, black and yellow may be placed in corners I, II, III and IV, respectively.
(b) Corner flags are to be mounted on posts about 12 inches high, either up to 12 inches outside the court or on the boundary but are not to intrude into the court.
4.2.5 Halfway markers
White pegs, sufficiently prominent to be seen across the court, may be placed on the boundary to mark the ends of the halfway lines but are not to intrude into the court.
4.2.6 Scoring clips
(a) Two sets of scoring clips may be provided. One set is to be blue or black and the other red or yellow (or other colours if alternative balls are used).
(b) A scoring clip forms part of the player's body when attached to it.
GENERAL RULES OF PLAY
5. THE START
5.1 Order of play
5.1.1 Subject to Rule 5.3.2, the sides are to decide the Order of Play by tossing a coin or by an equivalent procedure. The winning side decides whether to play first or second.
5.1.2 The side to play first becomes the striker's side and plays the first stroke of the game with the blue ball or the equivalent alternative colour.
5.2 How and when a game starts
5.2.1 Each ball is initially played from the start area.
5.2.2 A game starts when the first stroke of the game is played.
5.3 Matches of more than one game
5.3.2 Subject to Rule 5.3.3, the losing side of one game starts the next game with either ball of its side.
5.3.3 In tournament and team play, if a match consists of two games, the organising body may direct that the side that did not decide the order of play in the first game is to decide the order of play in the second game.
5.4 Irregularities in the first four turns of a game
If a ball played from the start area under Rule 5.2.1 is replaced following an irregularity, it becomes an outside agency under Rule 6.4.2(e). It may be played from anywhere within the start area when it is next played.
6. THE TURN, STRIKING PERIOD AND STROKE
6.1.1 A turn is a period of time in which a stroke is to be:
(a) played; or
(b) played and, if necessary, replayed; or
(c) declared to be played.
6.1.2 The first turn of a game starts when the game starts (see Rule 5.2.2). All subsequent turns begin when the preceding turn ends.
6.1.3 Subject to Rule 6.1.4, a turn ends when all balls moved by a stroke have stopped or have left the court, or when a stroke is declared to have been played.
[Time-limited games: see Rule 19.1.2]
6.1.4 If a player is required to replay a stroke or, being so entitled, decides to do so, the turn ends when all balls moved by the replayed stroke have stopped or have left the court, or when the replayed stroke is declared to have been played.
[Time-limited games: see Rule 19.1.2]
6.2 Striking period
6.2.1 Subject to Rule 6.2.2, the striking period is a period of time which starts when a player has taken a stance with apparent intent to play a stroke and ends when the player quits the stance under control or, if sooner, when the turn ends.
6.2.2 If the player, having taken such a stance, quits it under control by clearly stepping away from the stance before playing a stroke or committing a fault, the striking period is cancelled and will not start again until the player takes a new stance with apparent intent to play a stroke.
6.3.1 A stroke is an action or a declaration by a player. Subject to Rule 6.3.2, a stroke is played and a ball is said to be played in a stroke when:
(b) the player commits a fault (see Rule 11); or
(c) the player declares the stroke to have been played, in which case the stroke is deemed to have been played with the ball the player nominates.
6.3.2 A stroke is not played if:
(a) a player, without committing a fault, misses or fails to reach the ball that the player intended to strike; or
(b) the ball belongs to another game unless this is not discovered until after the opposing side has played a stroke, in which case the stroke with the ball from the other game is to be treated as if it had been played with a ball of the game that did not belong to the side that played it (see Rules 10.4 and 10.6).
6.3.3 If, during the striking period, a player accidentally contacts a ball with a mallet while intending to strike another ball, the player has committed a fault under Rule 11.2.8 and is deemed to have played a stroke with the ball that the player intended to strike (see Rule 6.3.1(b)).
6.3.5 Subject to Rules 8 to 16, a ball may move as the result of a stroke and cause another ball to move by either direct or indirect impacts between them or other balls, or by forces transmitted through a hoop or the peg.
6.3.6 If one or more strokes are annulled (see Rules 10.3.3, 13 and 16.4.4(a)), they are treated as if they had not been played and any irregularity committed as a result of such a stroke is ignored. The game is restored to its state before the earliest such stroke by replacing the balls in the positions they then occupied and cancelling any points scored for either side as a result of any such stroke. Any irregularity committed as a result of the stroke before the earliest such stroke is remedied and play continues in accordance with these Rules.
[Time-limited games: see Rule 19.3.1. Handicap play: see Rules 20.5.3, 20.6.2 and 20.7.2]
6.3.7 If a side is directed to lose its next stroke under Rules 12.1.2(b), 15.5, 16.4.2 or 16.4.4(b), play is to continue as if the side had made a declaration under Rule 6.3.1(c) in respect of that stroke and nominated the next ball in colour sequence.
6.4 Ball as an outside agency
6.4.2 A ball becomes an outside agency when:
(a) it leaves the court, which occurs as soon as any part of it would touch a straight edge raised vertically from the boundary; or
(b) it is directed to be played from a penalty area under Rules 8.4 or 17.2; or
(d) it is temporarily moved from its lawful position; or
6.4.3 A ball ceases to be an outside agency:
6.4.4 If a determination of whether a ball has left the court concludes that, within the limits of observation, it is on the borderline between having left the court and having not done so, the decision is that it has left the court.
6.5 Positions of balls
6.5.1 At the end of a turn, play continues with the balls in the positions that they then occupy, except for any ball whose position is otherwise specified by these Rules.
6.5.2 The position occupied by a ball at the end of a turn is that in which it appears to have stopped for a period of at least five seconds, as agreed by both sides. However, if the sides do not agree, Rule 15.2.2 applies.
6.5.3 If a ball that was stationary moves before the next stroke is played, it is to be replaced before the next stroke is played.
6.5.4 Subject to Rule 6.5.5, both sides are responsible for ensuring that all balls are correctly positioned before a stroke is played. However, subject to Rules 8.4.4 and 13, there is no remedy if a ball, including a ball that is an outside agency, is played from an incorrect position.
[Double-banking: see Rule 18.2.3]
6.5.5 A ball that is an outside agency need not be correctly positioned before a stroke is played if:
(a) it will be not played in the next stroke; and
(b) both sides reasonably believe it would not be affected by the next stroke if it were in its lawful position.
6.5.6 If a ball that is an outside agency is left on the court and is affected by subsequent play, it is to be placed in its lawful position before it is next played.
6.5.7 If a ball that is not an outside agency is discovered to be incorrectly positioned but has not been affected by subsequent play, it is to be correctly positioned before the next stroke is played. There is no remedy if such a ball is affected by subsequent play.
6.6 Replacing a ball that has left the court
6.6.1 Subject to Rules 6.6.4 and 9.4, a ball that has left the court is to be replaced on the court before it is next played so that it is touching the boundary at the point where it left the court as agreed by both sides. However, if the sides do not agree where it left the court, the player who caused the ball to leave the court (or a referee, if present) is to decide.
6.6.2 A ball that has left the court may have its replacement position marked at any time before it is next played by:
(b) being placed outside the boundary close to its replacement position; or
(c) the use of a ball marker (see Rule 14.6.3).
It is the responsibility of the side that wishes to have a replacement position marked to do so. If the sides do not agree about the method of marking, a ball marker is to be used.
6.6.4 If a ball cannot be replaced under Rule 6.6.1 because of the presence of another ball on the court, it is to be replaced after the other ball has been played. However, if the ball to be replaced will be played before the other ball, it is to be replaced as its owner decides so that it is touching the boundary and in contact with the other ball on either side.
6.7 Playing a ball touching the boundary
A ball touching the boundary is to be played into the court when next played in a stroke. If a ball touching the boundary is not played into the court when next played in a stroke, it remains an outside agency. Any balls moved by a stroke that is not played into the court are replaced and any points scored are cancelled.
7. SCORING A POINT
7.1 How a point is scored
7.1.2 The process by which a ball passes through a hoop is known as running a hoop (see Rules 7.2 and 7.3 and Diagram 2).
7.2 When a ball starts to run a hoop
7.2.1 Subject to Rule 7.2.2 and the special situations set out in Rules 7.5.4 and 7.5.5, a ball starts to run a hoop when it first protrudes out of the jaws of the hoop on the non-playing side when travelling from the playing side to the non-playing side (see Diagram 2(ii)).
7.2.2 If the ball subsequently moves back through the hoop during the turn and either:
(b) exits the hoop entirely on the playing side
then it has not started to run the hoop.
7.2.3 If a ball first enters the hoop in order from the non-playing side, Rule 7.5.4 applies. Either side may request that the position of such a ball be tested in accordance with Rule 7.6 to determine if it is in a position to run the hoop and score the point. In a marginal situation, Rule 7.7.1 applies.
7.3 When a ball completes running a hoop
7.3.1 Subject to Rule 7.3.2, a ball completes running a hoop when it ceases to protrude out of the jaws of the hoop on the playing side when travelling from the playing side to the non-playing side (see Diagram 2(iv)).
7.3.2 If the ball subsequently moves back through the hoop during the turn, and either:
(b) exits the hoop entirely on the playing side
then it has not completed running the hoop.
7.3.3 Either side may request that the position of a ball be tested in accordance with Rule 7.6 to determine if it has completed running the hoop in order. In a marginal situation, Rule 7.7.2 applies.
7.3.4 A ball may complete running a hoop in the turn in which it started to run the hoop. Alternatively, it may complete running the hoop in a subsequent turn.
7.4 When a point is scored
7.4.1 Subject to Rule 7.4.2, a ball scores a point in a turn during which it completes running the hoop in order, and the next hoop becomes the hoop in order, when the whole of the ball no longer protrudes out of the jaws of the hoop on the playing side, provided that it stops at the end of the turn (see Rule 6.5.2) in a position in which no part of the ball protrudes out of the jaws of the hoop on the playing side.
7.4.2 A point may be cancelled or not counted in certain circumstances (see Rules 6.3.6, 6.7, 7.5.1, 7.9.2, 8.4.4, 9.6, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5.5(b), 11.4.3, 12.2, 13 and 15.4.1).
[Handicap play: see Rules 20.5.3 and 20.7.2]
7.5 Special situations
7.5.1 If more than one ball runs the hoop in order as the result of a single stroke, only the ball that was nearer the hoop before the stroke was played scores the point.
7.5.3 If a ball enters the hoop in order from the playing side and stops in the hoop and is replaced in the hoop following an irregularity in a later turn, the ball may complete running the hoop from that position and score the point.
7.5.4 If a ball first enters the hoop in order from the non-playing side, it cannot score the point for itself in the same stroke. In order to score the point in a subsequent stroke, it must either:
(b) exit the hoop entirely on the playing side.
7.6 Consulting the opposing side or a referee
A player is to consult the opposing side (or a referee, if present) before testing, except by an ocular test assisted by nothing more than spectacles or contact lenses, whether a ball is in a position to score a point or has scored a point.
7.7 Adjudicating close positions
7.7.1 If a determination of whether a ball that has entered the hoop in order from the non-playing side is in a position to run the hoop and score the point in accordance with Rule 7.2 concludes that, within the limits of observation, the ball is on the borderline between protruding out of the jaws of the hoop on the non-playing side and not doing so, the decision is that the ball may run the hoop and score the point from that position.
7.7.2 If a determination of whether a ball has completed running the hoop in order in accordance with Rule 7.3 concludes that, within the limits of observation, the ball is on the borderline between protruding out of the jaws of the hoop on the playing side and not doing so, the decision is that the ball has completed running the hoop and scored the point.
7.8 Keeping the score
Both sides are responsible for keeping the correct score. After each point is scored, the side that caused the point to be scored (or a referee, if present) should announce the score or, if in use, attach a scoring clip to the hoop or ensure that a scoreboard is updated.
7.9 Hoop contested or run out of order
7.9.1 A hoop is run out of order when a player, with the intention of scoring a point, causes a ball to run a hoop that is not the hoop in order. No point is scored for a hoop that is run out of order except when the sides have left the court, or started another game, having agreed which side has won the last game.
7.9.2 If it is discovered by a player that both sides have contested a hoop out of order in their respective last strokes, the player is to forestall play before the player plays a further stroke. In addition, if one or more hoops have been run out of order, the last hoop scored correctly and the score at that stage are to be confirmed and any misplaced scoring clips are to be removed. The balls are left where they stopped and play continues in colour sequence.
7.9.3 If a referee, whether active or inactive, believes that both sides have contested a hoop out of order in their respective last strokes or that a hoop has been run out of order, Rule 15.4 applies.
8. OFFSIDE BALLS
8.1 Halfway lines
8.1.2 The halfway lines are shown in Diagram 3 and are defined as follows:
BG the line through the centres of 5 and 6
AF the line halfway between BG and the line through the centres of 1 and 2
CH the line halfway between BG and the line through the centres of 3 and 4
DE the line through the peg perpendicular to the East and West boundaries.
8.1.3 The halfway lines apply as follows:
Hoop in order Halfway line
7 or 17 AF
3, 9 or 15 BG
5 or 11 CH
7th hoop in a 7 point game DE
13th hoop in a 13 point game DE
19th hoop in a 19 point game DE
All others DE
8.2 When a ball is an offside ball
8.2.1 Subject to Rules 8.2.3 and 8.3, a ball becomes an offside ball if all of it is clearly beyond the halfway line for the hoop in order at the end of a turn in which a point is scored. If a ball has left the court but has not yet been replaced under Rule 6.6, its position for this purpose is the point where it left the court.
8.2.2 A ball ceases to be an offside ball:
(a) when it is subject to an offside direction; or,
8.2.3 If a stationary ball is subject to interference by the opposing side or an outside agency when there is reasonable doubt about its position relative to the halfway line for the next hoop in order, it is replaced under Rule 9.2.2 but it is not to be treated as an offside ball in relation to that hoop if a point is scored before it is next played.
(a) the stroke just played; or
(b) a stroke played by the opposing side; or
(c) subject to Rule 8.3.3, contact with an opponent ball at any time in the last turn in which the ball moved or was played.
8.3.2 The exemptions in Rule 8.3.1 do not apply to a ball whose owner has:
(a) declared a stroke to have been played with it since it reached its final position; or
(b) committed a fault in the last stroke in which the ball moved or was played.
8.3.3 The exemption in Rule 8.3.1(c) does not apply if:
(a) the only contact with an opponent ball was one from which the ball started in contact; and
(b) the opponent ball did not move or shake when the ball moved or was played.
8.4 Offside direction
8.4.2 Before an offside owner plays a stroke, it may ask the offside opponent to decide if it wishes to give an offside direction. The offside opponent is to announce its decision promptly (see Rule 16.2.8) and may not change that decision.
8.4.3 A ball subject to an offside direction immediately becomes an outside agency (see Rule 6.4.2(b)) and cannot become an offside ball again until after it is next played. However, a ball that ceases to be an offside ball under Rule 8.2.2(b) may become an offside ball again if another point is scored before it is next played.
9.1 Interference with a ball by a player
(a) by the player's mallet or body; or
(a) lifts the ball in order to prevent it being hit by an outside agency; or
(b) marks or cleans the ball with the permission of the opposing side or a referee (if present); or
(c) stops a ball that is clearly about to leave the court shortly before it does so in order to save time, provided that the position of the ball, when replaced under Rule 6.6.1, will have no tactical significance; or
(d) moves or touches the ball otherwise in accordance with these Rules.
9.2 Interference with a ball by an outside agency
9.2.1 Effect of interference
(b) No point may be scored by any ball while it is an outside agency.
9.2.2 Interference with a stationary ball
9.2.3 Interference with a moving ball by a stationary outside agency
If a moving ball hits an outside agency that was stationary from the start of the striking period to when the collision occurred, the stroke is not replayed and the opposing side is to decide whether:
(a) to leave the ball where it stopped; or
(b) to place it where the opposing side (or a referee, if present) judges that it would have stopped if there had been no interference.
9.2.4 Other interference with a moving ball
Where Rule 9.2.3 does not apply, if a moving ball is subject to interference by an outside agency when, in the opinion of both sides (or a referee, if present), the main intended outcome of the stroke was still in doubt, the ball is to be replaced and the stroke is to be replayed. Otherwise, the ball is to be placed where both sides (or a referee, if present) judge that it would have stopped if there had been no interference.
9.2.5 Interference and error in the same stroke
If a ball is caused to move by a stroke in which an error is committed and is subject to interference by an outside agency while still moving, the error is dealt with first. If all balls affected by the error are replaced, the interference is ignored. Otherwise, Rule 9.2.3 or 9.2.4 applies, as appropriate, but no replay is permitted under Rule 9.2.4.
9.3 Interference by the court surface
9.3.1 Before a stroke is played, the player is entitled to relief from unevenness on the court surface in accordance with Rules 9.3.2 to 9.3.4 if, in the opinion of both sides (or a referee, if present), the unevenness is likely to affect the outcome of the stroke.
9.3.2 Damage to the court surface in the jaws or in the immediate vicinity of a hoop is to be repaired and no other relief is permitted.
9.3.3 Other damage to the court surface, which is not a widespread feature of that particular court nor a result of a ball being hit into the court surface, is to be repaired if possible and, otherwise, is to be treated as an immovable outside agency (see Rule 9.3.4).
9.3.4 If unevenness on the court surface is caused by an immovable outside agency (such as a sprinkler head or a protruding tree root), any ball that is likely to be affected by the stroke may be moved by the minimum necessary, as agreed by the opposing side (or a referee, if present), to avoid the unevenness and give the player no advantage. A ball so moved but not affected by the stroke is to be replaced before the next stroke is played.
9.4 Interference with the playing of a stroke
9.4.2 A player is entitled to relief before playing a stroke if a fixed obstacle outside the court interferes with the swing of the player's mallet or if uneven ground outside the court prevents the player from adopting a level stance. In such circumstances, subject to Rule 9.4.3, the player may move the ball that the player intends to strike ("the relevant ball") to a point on the line connecting the position where the ball lies and the intended target. However, the movement may be only the minimum necessary, as agreed by the opposing side (or a referee, if present), to avoid the fixed obstacle or uneven ground.
9.4.3 Where Rule 9.4.2 applies, one or both of the following may be applicable.
(a) If the player intends to cause the relevant ball to hit forcefully another ball that lies within 6 yards of the original position of the relevant ball, then, subject to the consent of the owner of the other ball, that other ball and any other ball that might be affected by the stroke are to be moved so that their positions relative to the relevant ball remain the same.
(b) If a ball lies within 1 yard of the original position of the relevant ball and is likely to interfere with its passage, such a ball is to be moved so that its position relative to the relevant ball remains the same.
Any ball so moved but not affected by the stroke is to be replaced before the next stroke is played.
9.5 Interference by defective equipment
9.5.1 If a player suspects that the outcome of the stroke that the player has just played was affected by a ball being a jammed ball, the player may have the hoop and ball checked and, if necessary, adjusted or exchanged.
9.5.3 Subject to Rules 9.5.4 to 9.5.6, if a ball is a jammed ball, the player may replay the stroke after all balls moved by the stroke are replaced. If the stroke is not replayed, the balls are left where they stopped.
9.5.4 If a jammed ball stops in a hoop off the ground above another ball, all balls moved by the stroke are replaced. The hoop and ball are to be checked and, if necessary, adjusted or exchanged. Subject to Rules 9.5.5 and 9.5.6, the stroke is to be replayed.
9.5.5 A replay is only permitted if the player was attempting to cause the jammed ball to pass through the hoop, in either direction.
9.5.6 A replay is not permitted if the player committed a fault in playing the stroke, unless it is agreed by both sides (or a referee, if present) that the fault was committed solely because the equipment was defective.
9.6 Interference by incorrect information
9.6.1 The interference occurs if a player successfully claims to have played a stroke ("the affected stroke") when acting on incorrect information supplied by the opposing side in a way that the player would not otherwise have played.
9.6.2 If the interference is discovered before the player plays the same ball again, the player may decide to replay the affected stroke after the balls are replaced in the positions they occupied before that stroke and any points scored by that stroke and any later strokes are cancelled. Otherwise, the affected stroke and any later strokes are treated as lawful.
9.7 Interference with a ball by a loose impediment
9.7.1 A loose impediment may be removed from the court surface at any time.
9.7.2 If a moving ball is affected by a loose impediment, there is no relief.
9.8 Interference with a ball by weather
9.8.2 If a moving ball is affected by weather, there is no relief.
10. PLAYING A WRONG BALL
10.1.1 Subject to Rule 10.1.2, a wrong ball is played when any of Rules 10.3 to 10.5 apply.
10.1.2 If it is discovered after a stroke has been played in the fifth turn of a game that, in all the first four turns of a game, the balls were played in compliance with the colour sequence stated in Rule 1.2 but by the opponents of the balls' owners, the ownership of the balls during the remainder of the match is treated as indicated by the first four turns.
10.2 Forestalling play
10.2.1 If a player (or a referee, if present) believes that a wrong ball is about to be played, the player (or referee) is to forestall play and require that the correct ball is played.
10.2.2 If a player (or a referee, if present) believes that a wrong ball may have been played in the last stroke, the player (or referee) is to forestall play (see Rule 16.2.9). If a wrong ball has been played in the last stroke, play is to continue by applying the first of Rules 10.3 to 10.5 that applies. Otherwise, play continues in colour sequence, all earlier strokes are treated as lawful and all points scored are counted for the owners of the balls that scored the points.
10.3 Playing when not entitled
10.3.1 A side is not entitled to play a stroke if the Rules state that the opposing side is entitled to play a stroke.
10.3.2 A side that has just played a stroke is not entitled to play the next stroke unless it is a stroke played or replayed in accordance with Rules 6 to 17.
[Handicap play: see Rule 20.5.1 for a further exception]
10.3.3 If a side played a stroke when not entitled to do so, a wrong ball has been played and the stroke is annulled.
10.4 Previous stroke played with opponent ball
If the previous stroke was played with a ball that did not belong to the side that played it and the last stroke was played by the other side, a wrong ball has been played in both strokes and any points scored by those strokes are cancelled. Play continues by a penalty area continuation.
10.5 Wrong ball played by striker's side
10.5.1 When played
10.5.2 Striker's side played the partner ball
If the striker's side played the partner ball, the non-offending side is to decide whether to apply Replace and Replay (see Rule 10.5.5) or Ball Swap (see Rule 10.5.6). The non-offending side is to announce its decision promptly (see Rule 16.2.8) and may not change that decision.
10.5.3 Striker's side played an opponent ball
10.5.4 Striker's partner played the striker's ball
10.5.5 Replace and Replay
If Replace and Replay applies:
(a) all balls moved by the last stroke are replaced;
(b) any points scored by the last stroke are cancelled;
(c) the striker then plays the ball that should have been played in the last stroke.
10.5.6 Ball Swap
If Ball Swap applies:
(a) all balls moved by the last stroke are left where they stopped, except that the positions of the ball played in the last stroke and the ball that should have been played in the last stroke are swapped;
(b) a swapped ball takes the actual or potential offside status of the ball with which it is swapped;
(c) any points scored by the last stroke are counted for the owner(s) of the balls that scored the points;
(d) the non-offending side then plays the ball next in colour sequence after the ball that should have been played in the last stroke.
10.6 Status of earlier strokes and points
10.6.1 When play is forestalled after a wrong ball has been played in the last stroke, all earlier strokes are treated as lawful if they occurred before the stroke specified below.
(c) If Rule 10.5.1 applies, the last stroke.
10.6.2 Subject to Rule 7.9, all points scored in those strokes are counted for the owners of the balls that scored the points.
10.7 Wrong ball and fault in the same stroke
10.7.3 If Rule 10.5.1 applies, a fault in the last stroke is subject to Rule 11 and the wrong ball is ignored. Play continues by the non-offending side playing the ball next in colour sequence after the ball that should have been played in the last stroke. A fault in any earlier stroke is ignored under Rule 11.4.1.
A fault is an act prohibited by Rule 11.2 that is committed by a player playing, or intending to play, a stroke during the striking period. Committing a fault also constitutes playing a stroke with the ball that the player intended to strike (see Rule 6.3.3).
11.2 Types of fault
11.2.1 touches the mallet head with a hand (but see Rule 11.3.2); or
11.2.2 strikes a ball by kicking, hitting, dropping or throwing the mallet; or
11.2.3 strikes a ball with any part of the mallet other than an end-face of the head, either deliberately in any stroke or accidentally in a stroke that requires special care because of the proximity of a hoop or the peg or another ball; or
11.2.4 strikes a ball with the mallet more than once, or allows a ball to retouch the mallet; or
11.2.5 maintains contact between the mallet and a ball; or
11.2.6 causes a ball, while still in contact with the mallet, to touch a hoop, the peg or, unless the balls were in contact before the stroke, another ball; or
11.2.7 strikes a ball when it lies in contact with a hoop upright or the peg other than away therefrom; or
11.2.8 touches any ball, other than the ball that the player intended to strike, with the mallet, or touches any ball with the player's body; or
11.2.9 moves or shakes a stationary ball by hitting a hoop or the peg with the mallet or the player's body; or
11.2.10 causes damage to the court surface inside the boundary with the mallet that, before the court surface is repaired, is capable of significantly affecting a subsequent stroke played over the damaged area.
11.3 Declaration of faults
11.3.1 A fault is to be declared if the player (or a referee or other observer asked to watch the stroke) believes that it is more likely than not that the relevant event occurred.
11.3.2 A fault under Rule 11.2.1 is committed only if the mallet head is touched during the final forward swing of the mallet.
11.3.3 When the mallet strikes a ball that is in contact with another ball before the stroke is played, the following faults may be declared only if the observer, assisted by nothing more than spectacles, contact lenses or a hearing aid:
(a) under Rule 11.2.4, sees a separation between mallet and ball followed by a second contact between mallet and ball; or
(b) under Rule 11.2.5, sees or hears a contact between mallet and ball that is materially longer than that which necessarily occurs in a stroke of the same type.
11.3.4 In other cases, the commission of a fault may be deduced from other observations, including sound and the movement of balls.
11.4 Action after a fault
11.4.1 Subject to Rule 6.3.6, if a fault is committed but play is not forestalled because of the fault before a stroke, whether lawful or unlawful, has been played by either side, there is no remedy for the fault and play is to continue as if the fault had not been committed.
11.4.2 Otherwise, the non-offending side is to decide whether the balls are left where they stopped or are replaced. The non-offending side is to announce its decision promptly (see Rule 16.2.8) and may not change that decision.
[Handicap play: see Rule 20.8]
11.4.3 If the balls are left where they stopped, only a point scored for the non-offending side is counted. If the balls are replaced, no point is scored for any ball.
11.4.4 Subject to Rule 10.7, play continues by the non-offending side playing the ball next in colour sequence.
11.5 More than one fault in a stroke
If a player commits more than one fault in a stroke, there is no additional penalty.
12. OVERLAPPING PLAY
12.1 Both sides play overlapping strokes
12.1.1 If two or more balls are caused to be in motion at the same time as the result of strokes played by both sides, the stroke played by the striker's side is lawful, subject to Rules 10 and 11, and the stroke played by the non-striking side is unlawful.
12.1.2 If the striker played a lawful stroke:
(a) all balls moved only by the unlawful stroke are replaced; and
(b) the non-striking side is to lose its next stroke (see Rule 6.3.7).
12.2 One side plays overlapping strokes
In doubles, if two or more balls are caused to be in motion at the same time as the result of strokes played by both players of the same side, no points are scored for any ball and the non-offending side is to decide whether all balls moved by the strokes are left where they stopped or are replaced. Play continues by the non-offending side playing either of its balls.
13. PLAYING AFTER PLAY HAS BEEN FORESTALLED
If a player plays a stroke after either side (or a referee, if present) has justifiably forestalled play and before the issue has been settled, the stroke is annulled. The issue is to be settled and the player entitled to play is then to play.
14. INFORMATION, ADVICE AND MARKERS
14.1 Information requested by the opposing side
If asked and able to do so, a player is to inform the opposing side promptly about the Rules relating to anything relating to the state of the game, such as the score, which hoop is next in order, which ball was played last, the colour of any ball on the court or how any ball over the halfway line reached its position.
14.2 No reference to written information
During a game, players are not permitted to refer to information in the form of printed, handwritten, electronic or other prepared material except for the purpose of clarifying the Rules or any regulations or event conditions that apply to a circumstance that has arisen or may be about to arise.
14.3 No tactical advice to the opposing side
A side should not give tactical advice to the opposing side. However, the opposing side may act on such advice.
14.4 No tactical advice from outside the game
Tactical advice should not be given to either side by anyone from outside the game. However, a side may act on such advice unless, in a team event, it was given by a member or official of its team.
14.5 Advice in doubles
In doubles, partners may advise each other and a partner may assist in the preparation for playing a stroke, including indicating to the player the direction in which the mallet should be swung. However, when the stroke is played, the partner is to stand well away from the player or any position which might assist the player in gauging the strength or direction of the stroke.
14.6.1 Subject to Rules 14.6.2 and 14.6.3, no mark or marker may be made or placed inside or outside the court.
14.6.2 Before a stroke is played, the player's mallet and, in doubles, the player's partner and the partner's mallet may be used as markers to assist the player in gauging the strength or direction of the stroke.
14.6.3 Ball markers may be used to mark the position of a ball that is to be temporarily moved or may have to be replaced.
15.1 Referees involved in a game
15.1.1 Both sides are responsible for the fair and correct application of these Rules.
15.1.2 References in these Rules to "a referee (if present)" refer to referees appointed in accordance with the WCF Refereeing Regulations. These include:
(a) a Referee in Charge of a game (including a Supervising Referee);
(b) a Referee on Request who is an Active Referee for the game; and
(c) an Inactive Referee who intervenes in accordance with those regulations. The presence of a referee does not remove a player's responsibilities under Rule 15.1.1.
15.2 Observing strokes and differences of opinion
15.2.1 Where a stroke is to be played that may result in the commission of a fault or a ball leaving the court in a critical position, the player should first ask the opposing side (or a referee, if present) to watch the stroke. If the player does not ask, the opposing side may forestall play and require that the stroke be watched.
15.2.2 In the absence of a referee, or if Rule 15.2.1 does not apply, if there is a difference of opinion on a matter of fact, the opinion of the player with the best view is to be preferred, but if all views are equal, the opinion of the player who played the stroke is to be preferred.
15.3.1 An impasse exists when neither side appears willing to play a stroke that might significantly alter the existing tactical situation.
15.3.2 An impasse may be declared by:
(a) both sides acting together; or
(b) a Referee in Charge of the game; or
(c) a referee called by the striker.
A referee may declare an impasse only after warning both sides that an impasse may be declared and that a decision will be made after each side has played two further turns.
15.3.3 If an impasse is so declared, play is to continue by a penalty area continuation.
15.4 Hoop contested or run out of order
15.4.1 Subject to Rule 7.9.2, if a referee, whether active or inactive, observes that both sides have contested a hoop out of order in their respective last strokes, the referee is to forestall play and direct that play is to continue with a penalty area continuation. In addition, if one or more hoops have been run out of order, the last hoop scored correctly and the score at that stage are to be confirmed and any misplaced scoring clips are to be removed.
15.4.2 If a referee, whether active or inactive, observes that a hoop has been run out of order but that the side that did not run it did not contest the hoop in its last stroke, the referee should forestall play under Rule 15.4.1 only if that side then contests another hoop out of order in its next stroke.
15.5 Overriding rule
If a situation does not appear to be adequately dealt with by these Rules, or the interpretation appears to be uncertain in relation to a situation, the issue is to be decided by both sides (or a referee, if present) in a manner which best meets the justice of the case.
16.1 Players are responsible for maintaining good standards of behaviour towards other players, officials, equipment, courts and spectators.
16.2 Unacceptable behaviour
A player contravenes Rule 16.1 by behaving unacceptably. Examples of unacceptable behaviour for which players may be penalised include, but are not limited to, cases where a player:
16.2.1 leaves the vicinity of the court during a game without permission from the opposing side or, in tournament and team play, from a referee (if present) or from the event manager.
16.2.2 contravenes any part of Rule 14.
16.2.3 physically abuses the player's mallet or other equipment or deliberately or repeatedly damages the court surface.
16.2.4 disturbs other players during the game by talking, making noises, standing in front of or moving in sight of a player who is about to play a stroke, except as permitted or required by the Rules.
16.2.5 argues aggressively or continuously with, or is aggressive towards, another player.
16.2.6 fails to accept a decision of a referee on a matter of fact or shows lack of respect for a referee.
16.2.7 deliberately or repeatedly:
(a) interferes with a ball; or
(b) plays a wrong ball or tries to cause the opposing side to play a wrong ball; or
(c) commits a fault or tries to cause the opposing side to commit a fault; or
(d) plays a stroke with the wrong mallet; or
(e) fails to warn others in the vicinity before playing a forceful stroke if a ball may travel towards them.
16.2.8 fails to reply promptly to a request (see Rules 8.4.2 and 14.1), fails to announce a decision promptly (see Rules 10.5.2 and 11.4.2), wastes time or fails to play a stroke with reasonable dispatch (see Rule 16.3).
[Handicap play: see Rule 20.6.3]
16.2.9 deliberately fails to forestall play under Rules 10.2.1 or 10.2.2 and then plays a stroke.
16.2.10 touches a hoop or the peg either between strokes when a ball lies in contact with it or while another player is playing a stroke.
16.2.11 except with the permission of the opposing side (or a referee, if present), attempts to perform a physical test to determine whether a point has been scored or may be scored or whether a ball has left the court.
16.2.12 attempts to conceal or repair damage to the court surface that may indicate that a fault has been committed under Rule 11.2.10 before it is ruled on by the opposing side (or a referee, if present).
16.2.13 acts in a manner that may bring the sport into disrepute.
16.3 Playing with reasonable dispatch
16.3.1 In tournament or team play, a match may be made subject to a requirement that each player is to play a stroke or declare that a stroke has been played within one minute of the end of the last turn, except when play is delayed while a ball is retrieved or a referee is called, or another example of justifiable delay exists.
16.3.2 If a requirement under Rule 16.3.1 is to apply throughout a match at the direction of the organising body, both sides are to be informed before the match starts that such a requirement applies.
[Time-limited games: see Rule 19.3.2]
16.4 Penalties when a referee is in charge
16.4.1 If, in the opinion of the Referee in Charge of a game, a player has contravened Rule 16.1, the referee is to:
(a) forestall play and draw attention to the contravention; and
(b) warn the player not to contravene Rule 16.1 in any way again.
16.4.2 If, in the opinion of the referee, a side contravenes Rule 16.1 for a second time in the same match, the referee is to forestall play and rule that the offending side is to lose its next stroke (see Rule 6.3.7).
16.4.3 If, in the opinion of the referee, a side contravenes Rule 16.1 for a third time in the same match, the referee is to forestall play and award the match to the opposing side. In this case the score in the game in progress is recorded as the winning total (4, 7 or 10) to the winning side and the score already recorded by the losing side. If the game forms part of a match of more than one game, any subsequent games in the match are recorded as won by the maximum margin.
(a) rule that the last stroke is annulled; or
(b) rule that the offending side is to lose its next stroke (see Rule 6.3.7); or
(c) award the game in progress or the match to the opposing side; or
(d) award the game in progress or the match to the opposing side and recommend to the Tournament Referee that the side in breach of Rule 16.1 be disqualified. If the match is not awarded to the opposing side, it is to be suspended until the Tournament Referee has decided the matter.
16.5 Penalties when a referee is not in charge
16.5.1 Where there is no Referee in Charge of a game, both sides are responsible for monitoring behaviour during the game. If, in the opinion of the opposing side, a player has contravened Rule 16.1, the opposing side is to:
(a) forestall play and draw attention to the contravention; and
(b) warn the player not to contravene Rule 16.1 in any way again.
The contravention is to be treated as a first contravention of Rule 16.1 for the purpose of Rule 16.4.2, unless Rule 16.5.2 applies and the referee referred to therein decides that Rule 16.1 was not contravened.
16.5.2 If the sides are unable to agree that the player has contravened Rule 16.1, the game is to be suspended until a referee has been called and has ruled on the situation. The referee is to decide whether Rule 16.1 has been contravened and, if so, has all the powers of a Referee in Charge of the game (see Rule 16.4).
16.5.3 The Tournament Referee may intervene in a match at any time and has all the powers of a Referee in Charge (see Rule 16.4) and, in addition, may disqualify a player for a serious breach of Rule 16.1 without requiring a recommendation from another referee.
17. PENALTY AREAS AND PENALTY AREA CONTINUATION
17.1 Penalty areas
17.1.1 The two semi-circular areas on the court with a radius of one yard and centred on the points marked D and E on Diagram 3 (see Rule 8.1.2) are each known as a penalty area. A ball directed to be played from a penalty area may be played from anywhere within it.
17.1.2 If a ball played from a penalty area under Rule 8.4 or 17.2 is replaced following an irregularity, it becomes an outside agency under Rule 6.4.2(e) and may be played from anywhere within the penalty area when it is next played.
17.2 Penalty area continuation
If play is to continue by a penalty area continuation (see Rules 10.4, 12.1.4, 15.3.3 and 15.4.1), all four balls are to be next played from the same penalty area. The sides are to decide the order of play by tossing a coin or by an equivalent procedure. The losing side is to decide from which penalty area the balls are to be played. Play continues by the winning side playing a stroke with either of its balls from the chosen penalty area.
18. ALTERNATIVE COLOURS AND DOUBLE-BANKING
18.1 Alternative colours
18.1.1 A game may be played with balls other than the traditional colours referred to in Rules 1.1 and 1.2.
18.1.2 If the standard alternative colours are used, one side plays with the green and brown balls and the opposing side with the pink and white balls. The balls are to be played in the colour sequence green, pink, brown and white.
18.1.3 If another set of colours is to be used, the colours to be played by each side and the colour sequence are to be agreed before play starts.
18.2.1 Two or more games may be played simultaneously on the same court, normally using the traditional colours for one game and alternative colours or striped balls for the other game(s). This is known as double-banking and the games are described as double-banked.
18.2.2 When games are double-banked, all players are to be aware of the other game(s) and are to try to avoid interference with the other game(s). For that purpose, with the permission of both sides of the relevant game, one or more balls of another game may be temporarily moved after their positions have been marked. Rule 9.2 applies if a ball interferes with a ball of another game.
[Time-limited games: see Rule 19.4.5]
18.2.4 If the same hoop is about to be contested in more than one game, the game involving the ball first played into the vicinity of that hoop should normally be given priority.
19. TIME-LIMITED GAMES
19.1 Procedure when time expires
19.1.1 When a time limit has been imposed on a game, both sides should arrange for an independent person or, failing that, one of themselves to be responsible for announcing that time has expired in a manner that can reasonably be expected to convey the announcement to those to whom it is addressed.
19.1.2 The final turn of the game, or the final turn before the start of any extension period or other form of resolution, is the turn that includes the last stroke played (see Rule 6.3.1) before time expires. Subject to Rule 19.3.1, if the last stroke is to be replayed but time expires before it can be replayed, the stroke is to be replayed as part of the final turn.
19.1.3 After time has expired, play either stops at the end of the final turn or continues to accommodate an extension period or other form of resolution as notified to both sides by the organising body or, if no such notification has been given, as agreed between the sides. Such notification or agreement should normally be given or reached before the start of the game. In the absence of any notification or agreement to the contrary, an extension period is to apply which consists of two further turns for each ball.
19.1.4 If play stops at the end of the final turn, the winner is the side for which the greater number of points has been scored. If the scores are equal then, subject to Rule 19.1.6, play is to continue and the winner is the side for which the next point is scored.
[Handicap play: see Rule 20.12.1]
19.1.5 At the end of any extension period or other form of resolution, if the game has not already been won in accordance with Rule 1.4.1, the winner is the side for which the greater number of points has been scored. If the scores are equal then, subject to Rule 19.1.6, play is to continue and the winner is the side for which the next point is scored.
[Handicap play: see Rule 20.12.2]
19.1.6 The organising body may direct that play is not to continue after the end of the final turn or, if there is one, after the end of an extension period or other form of resolution even if the scores are equal. In this case, the game ends and the result is to be reported as a tie.
19.2 Information requested by the opposing side
A request made under Rule 14.1 may include asking how much time remains in a game.
19.3 Restoration or addition of time
19.4 Suspension of time
Unless otherwise specified in the tournament regulations or event conditions, time is suspended in tournament and team play only if play ceases for any of the following reasons:
19.4.1 a refereeing event such as resetting equipment or repairing court damage, but not when a referee is called to watch a stroke.
19.4.2 searching for or replacing a lost ball.
19.4.3 a player being called away on official tournament duties or becoming unable to play because of illness or injury.
19.4.4 the game being adjourned.
19.4.5 play being held up in a double-banked game by another game on the same court.
19.4.6 any other event or situation, including weather, that leads to a delay of at least five minutes.
20. HANDICAP PLAY
20.1.1 A handicap game is played to allow players of different playing abilities to compete with more equal chances of winning by allowing extra strokes to be played.
20.1.2 Each player is allotted a handicap according to ability. The handicap range may extend from 20 (for the weakest players) to minus 6 (for the strongest players) although the extremes of this range need not be used.
20.1.3 Rules 1 to 19 above apply to handicap games except as indicated in this rule.
20.2.1 In singles, extra strokes are received by the higher-handicapped player from the lower-handicapped player.
20.2.2 In a 13 point game, the number of extra strokes received is calculated by subtracting the lower handicap from the higher handicap. This is the "handicap difference".
20.2.3 The handicap difference is adjusted downwards in a 7 point game and upwards in a 19 point game. The number of extra strokes received in 7, 13 and 19 point games is shown in Appendix 3, Table 1.
20.3.1 In doubles, extra strokes are received by the two highest-handicapped players who may be on the same side or on opposing sides.
20.3.2 The player with the lowest handicap of the four players and the player with the higher handicap on the opposing side are identified.
(a) If two players on the same side have the same handicap and both will receive extra strokes, the players are to announce before the game starts which of them will receive extra strokes based on the lowest handicap.
(b) If two players share the lowest handicap, either may be identified as the player with the lowest handicap because it will not affect the allocation of extra strokes.
20.3.3 In a 13 point game, the number of extra strokes received by the higher handicapped player is calculated by subtracting the lower handicap from the higher handicap and halving the difference. This is the "half handicap difference" and, subject to Rule 20.3.6, if it is not an integer, it is to be rounded upwards.
20.3.4 The half handicap difference is adjusted downwards in a 7 point game and upwards in a 19 point game. The number of extra strokes received in 7, 13 and 19 point games is shown in Appendix 3, Table 2.
20.3.5 The same calculation is performed for the two remaining players to determine the number of extra strokes received by the player with the higher handicap.
20.3.6 If both players of a side will receive one or more extra strokes based on a half handicap difference that is not an integer before rounding upwards, 0.5 is to be deducted from the half handicap difference of one player of the side. The players are to announce before the game starts which of them will be affected by the deduction.
20.4 Point scored by an extra stroke
A receiver may not score a point for the receiver's side by an extra stroke but may score a point for the opposing side.
20.5 When an extra stroke may be played
20.5.1 Subject to Rules 20.6.5 and 20.7.1, a receiver may play an extra stroke at any stage of the game in a new turn that follows the end of a turn in which the receiver played or replayed a stroke. If a receiver may play more than one extra stroke, the receiver may play them in succession.
20.5.3 If it is discovered that a player has played one or more extra strokes to which the player was not entitled and play is forestalled before the opposing side has played a stroke, whether lawful or unlawful, any such extra stroke is annulled. Otherwise, there is no remedy and any such extra stroke is treated as lawful.
20.6 Communication with the opposing side
20.6.1 A receiver considering whether to play an extra stroke is to warn the opposing side of the receiver's possible intention in a manner that can reasonably be expected to convey the warning to those to whom it is addressed. The warning is to be given either before or after the receiver has played the stroke that will precede the extra stroke but, in any event, is to be given before the opposing side plays a stroke.
20.6.3 The opposing side may ask a receiver who has just played a stroke if the receiver is considering whether to play an extra stroke. If so asked, the receiver is to reply promptly (see Rule 16.2.8).
20.6.4 A receiver who indicates an intention to play an extra stroke may revoke that decision at any time before playing the extra stroke.
20.7 After a wrong ball
20.7.1 An extra stroke may be played after playing a wrong ball only if the last stroke is first replayed after Replace and Replay has been applied (see Rule 10.5.5).
20.7.2 If it is discovered that one or more extra strokes have been played unlawfully and play is forestalled before the opposing side has played a stroke, whether lawful or unlawful, any such extra stroke is annulled. Otherwise, there is no remedy and any such extra stroke is treated as lawful.
20.8 After a fault
20.9 Hoop contested out of order
If Rules 7.9 or 15.4 apply, any extra strokes played while contesting a hoop out of order are restored.
20.10 Interference by incorrect information
20.10.1 In Rule 9.6, playing an extra stroke does not constitute playing a ball again.
20.10.2 If a replay occurs under Rule 9.6, any extra strokes played after the affected stroke are restored.
20.11 Information requested by the opposing side
A request made under Rule 14.1 may include asking how many extra strokes remain.
20.12 Time-limited games
20.12.1 If play continues after time has expired because the scores are equal and no extension period or other form of resolution applies (see Rule 19.1.4), any extra strokes may then be played.
20.12.2 In tournament and team play, unless the organising body has specified otherwise, no extra stroke is to be played during an extension period or other form of resolution. If play continues after the end of an extension period or other form of resolution because the scores are equal (see Rule 19.1.5), any extra strokes may then be played.
20.12.3 If a receiver played the last stroke before time expired (see Rule 19.1.2), the receiver may play an extra stroke only if permitted by Rules 20.12.1 or 20.12.2, even if they announced the intention to play an extra stroke before time expired.
The administration of the handicap system in the domain of a WCF Member is the responsibility of the WCF Member.
21. ADVANTAGE PLAY
An advantage game is played to allow sides of different playing abilities to compete with more equal chances of winning by altering the starting score for each side. Each side seeks to achieve the same target score (see Rule 21.3) after taking account of its starting score. Rules 1 to 18 apply subject to Rule 21.6.
21.2 Advantage handicap
21.2.1 A player's playing ability is indicated by the player's advantage handicap. This is equal to the player's Rule 20 handicap or, if the player does not have a Rule 20 handicap, is derived from the player's published WCF Dynamic Grade ("published DGrade") using the conversion table at https://worldcroquet.org/advantagegc.
21.2.2 If a player does not have a Rule 20 handicap or a published DGrade, the organising body may award the player a temporary advantage handicap.
21.3 Target score
The target score is 4, 7 or 10 points as notified to both sides by the organising body or, if no such notification has been given, as agreed between the sides. Such notification or agreement should normally be given or reached before the start of the game. In the absence of any notification or agreement to the contrary, the target score is 7 points.
21.4 Starting scores
The starting scores that apply to combinations of advantage handicaps for each target score are set out in the relevant starting score table at worldcroquet.org/advantagegc.
In doubles, the advantage handicap of each side is the average of the advantage handicaps of its players and, if it is not an integer, it is to be rounded upwards.
21.6.1 Rules 1.4.1 to 1.4.5 do not apply. An advantage game ends at the end of the turn in which one side scores the winning point, subject to any remedies under Rules 8 to 16.
21.6.2 If it is necessary to contest more than 12 hoops, further hoops are contested in the order 3, 4, 1, 2, 11, 12, 3, 4 until the game ends.
ADJUDICATING UNCERTAIN SITUATIONS
SUMMARY OF THE RULINGS
|6.4.4||When there is doubt about whether a ball has left the court.||The ball has left the court.|
|6.6.1||When there is doubt about where a ball left the court.||Where both sides agree that it left the court or, in the absence of agreement, where the player who caused the ball to leave the court (or a referee, if present) is to decide.|
|7.7.1||The ball can run the hoop and score the point from that position.|
When it is uncertain whether a ball has completed running the hoop in order.
|The ball has completed running the hoop.|
|11.3.1||When it is uncertain whether a fault was committed in a stroke.||A fault was committed if an adjudicator or the striker believes it more likely than not that the Rule was infringed.|
|15.2.2||When there is a difference of opinion on a matter of fact.||The opinion of the player with the best view is to be preferred but, if all views are equal, the opinion of the player who played the stroke is to be preferred.|
TOLERANCES AND METRIC EQUIVALENTS
Table 1: Dimensions subject to tolerances
|Rule||Subject||Imperial units||Tolerance||Metric units||Tolerance|
+/- 6 inches
+/- 6 inches
+/- 152 mm
+/- 152 mm
|2.3||Peg and hoops||7 yards||+/- 12 inches||6.4 m||+/- 305 mm|
+/- 1 inch
+/- ¼ inch
+/- 25 mm
+/- 6 mm
+ ½/- 1 inch
+/- 1/32 inch
+/- 1/32 inch
+ 12.5/- 25 mm
+/- 0.8 mm
+/- 0.8 mm
+/- 1/32 inch
+/- ¼ ounce
+/- 0.8 mm
+/- 7 grams
|3.4.1||Mallets||12 inches||n/a||305 mm||n/a|
Table 2: Metric equivalents of other dimensions
|Imperial units||Metric units|
|6 yards||5.5 m|
|1 yard||0.914 m|
|¾ inch||19 mm|
EXTRA STROKES IN HANDICAP PLAY
Table 1: Extra strokes in singles games
|Handicap difference||Game Length||Handicap difference||Game Length|
|7 point||13 point||19 point||7 point||13 point||19 point|
Table 2: Extra strokes in doubles games
|Half handicap difference||Game Length||Half handicap difference||Game Length|
|7 point||13 point||19 point||7 point||13 point||19 point|
WRONG BALL CHECKLIST
Wrong ball error
|1||Exchange of colours (i.e. first four turns played in colour sequence, but by opponent(s) of ball owner(s)).||10.1.2||Retain any scored||
Switch ball ownership
|2||Side played stroke when not entitled.||10.3||Cancel any scored||
|Side entitled to play|
|3||Previous stroke played by side A with a side B ball, and last stroke played by side B with any ball.||10.4||Cancel any scored by either stroke||
Penalty Area Continuation
|Winner of toss|
|4||Either player of correct side played one of its balls out of sequence.||10.5.2||Retain any scored||
|Cancel any scored||
Replace and Replay
|5||Either player of correct side played an opponent ball.||10.5.3||Cancel any scored||
Replace and Replay
|6||Doubles partner of correct side played striker's ball.||10.5.4||Cancel any scored||
Replace and Replay
RULE 11 GUIDANCE
1. HAMMER STROKES
1.1 A hammer stroke is one in which a player strikes down steeply on a ball, usually either facing away from the direction in which the ball is intended to travel or using a side stance.
1.2 The typical faults that can arise when a hammer stroke is played are:
- hitting the ball with the bevelled edge of the mallet - Rule 11.2.3;
- hitting the ball more than once (a "double tap") - Rule 11.2.4;
- maintaining contact between the mallet and the ball - Rule 11.2.5;
- causing damage to the surface of the court - Rule 11.2.10.
1.3 Hammer strokes should generally be watched by a referee (or an experienced player if a referee is not available) remembering that Rule 11.3.1 gives an explicit standard of proof, namely that a fault should be declared if the striker or referee (or other observer) believes that it is more likely than not that the relevant event occurred.
1.4 The risk of hitting the ball more than once ( "double tapping") or maintaining contact between mallet face and ball increases with the steepness of the angle at which the mallet comes down onto the ball. A cleanly played hammer shot will make the ball rebound from the court surface. If the ball squirts along the ground this is evidence the ball was trapped between the ground and the mallet and that repeated or prolonged contact between the mallet face and ball occurred. A muffled sound provides similar evidence.
1.5 Slow-motion video evidence has shown that hammer strokes played at an angle of 30 degrees to the horizontal (i.e. at 10.00 or 2.00 on the clock face) can give rise to double taps. For consistency, it should be normal practice to fault a firmly played hammer stroke where the mallet strikes the ball more steeply than 45 degrees to the horizontal (10.30 or 1.30) and the ball is not seen to rise significantly from the court surface as a result.
1.6 A badly-played hammer stroke which strikes the ball at 45 degrees or less to the horizontal may also cause the ball to squirt along the ground and/or give rise to audible double taps and if so should be faulted if the test in Rule 11.3.1 is satisfied.
1.7 Gentle hammer strokes are less likely to give rise to a fault and a referee should rely on their eyes and ears to decide whether a fault was committed.
2. JUMP STROKES
2.1 When the striker is trying to cause the striker's ball to jump over another ball which is from 2 feet to over 7 yards away, the stroke does not normally require the mallet face to contact the ball at more than 20 degrees to the horizontal to achieve the required elevation and so does not need to be watched. However, a misplayed stroke can cause a fault which is most likely to be damage to the court surface - Rule 11.2.10.
2.2 Short-range angled jump strokes where the striker's ball is close to the hoop and the striker is not aiming to jump over another ball are not generally played at an angle of more than 45 degrees to the horizontal and are generally unlikely to lead to prolonged contact between mallet and ball. However, such a stroke can still give rise to faults, such as a double tap, hitting the ball with a bevelled edge and damaging the court surface, so the striker should ask the opponent whether the stroke should be watched.
2.3 A jump stroke in which the striker is trying to cause the striker's ball to jump over a ball which is less than 2 feet away can often cause the mallet head to strike the striker's ball at an angle greater than 45 degrees to the horizontal (10.30 or 1.30). The guidance given on Hammer Strokes applies and the striker should ask the opponent if the stroke should be watched.
2.4 A failed jump stroke will normally create its own penalty but there are two cases where a faulty stroke may give the striker an unfair advantage if the stroke is not faulted. These are when a faulty stroke peels a ball that is in the jaws of the hoop by a short distance into a hampered position and the second is when the other ball is not in the jaws of a hoop and the faulty stroke sends it to a disadvantageous position, either cleared a considerable distance or into contact with a hoop upright. In these cases it is important that the opponent should be able to have the balls replaced.
3. DAMAGE TO THE COURT SURFACE
3.1 Rule 11.2.10 deals with damage to the court surface caused by the mallet during the striking period. The damage must be assessed before it is repaired. Attempting to repair or conceal damage before it has been ruled on by the opponent or a referee is an example of Unacceptable Behaviour under Rule 16.2.12.
3.2 To test whether the damage is sufficient to affect a subsequent stroke, a ball should be rolled gently across the damaged area from several angles to see whether it runs straight or is deflected. If the rolling ball is not deflected in any of the trials, it is not a fault. Once the damage has been assessed, it should be repaired immediately.
3.3 Damage to the court surface caused by a ball is not a fault. It is most likely to occur on a very wet lawn and on longer jump shots played hard at a slight downward angle. The damage will usually appear as an elliptical depression in the court surface. The ball can cause tears in the surface across the line of aim and it should not be assumed that these must have been caused by the mallet. Such damage should only be attributed to the mallet if the referee saw the mallet hit the ground or the lower edge of the mallet face has grass or soil sticking to it.
3.4 Damage caused to the court surface outside the court or outside striking period is not a fault. The damage should be repaired immediately. Deliberately or repeatedly damaging the court surface is an example of Unacceptable Behaviour under Rule 16.2.3.
4. DOUBLE-TAP AND CRUSH SITUATIONS
4.1 Ball played into another ball - along the line of centres
4.1.1 Rule 11.2.4 provides that a fault is committed if the mallet hits a ball more than once (a "double tap").
4.1.2 High speed photography has demonstrated that, if two balls are separated by 4mm or less before a stroke is played along the line of their centres, a second contact is unlikely because the mallet and the ball that it struck will probably still be in contact when the first ball hits the second ball. However, Rule 11.2.6 provides that a fault is committed if a player causes a ball, while still in contact with the mallet, to touch another ball unless the balls were in contact before the stroke (a "crush").
4.1.3 The combination of Rules 11.2.4 and 11.2.6 means that any stroke in which a ball is driven directly into another ball no more than 4mm away will almost always be a fault. If the separation distance is more than 4mm, a stroke in which one ball is driven directly into another should be declared a fault unless the second ball travels at least eight times as far as the first ball.
4.2 Ball played into another ball - at an angle
4.2.1 A stroke played at a significant angle to the line of centres is less likely to cause a double-tap or crush fault than a stroke played more or less straight.
4.2.2 If the separation between the balls is at least 4mm, the angle at which the balls depart from each other should be at least 60 degrees and, if that does not occur, a fault should almost always be declared. If the separation is less than 4mm, the angle at which the balls depart should be approaching 90 degrees to be sure of a lawful stroke.
4.2.3 If a stroke is played lawfully at an extreme angle, the object ball will not move very far. If it moves a significant distance, then it is likely that the stroke caused a fault under Rules 11.2.4 or 11.2.6.
Advantage play: 21
Annulment of stroke: 6.3.6
agreement of position: 6.5.2
exchange of defective ball: 9.5.1
interference with: 9
jamming in hoop: 9.5
moving or touching: 9.1.2(d)
wiping (see Ball, cleaning)
Bisque (see Extra stroke)
actual boundary: 2.2.2
ball leaving court: 6.4.2(a)
markings, multiple: 2.2.3
names of boundaries: 2.2.1
touching, ball: Glossary
Cleaning, ball: 9.1.2(b)
Clip, scoring: 4.2.6
Corner flag: 4.2.4
Damage to court surface: 11.2.10
Declaring a stroke: 6.3.1(c)
Deeming (see Declaring a stroke)
Direction, offside: Glossary
Disabled player: 3.4.5
Game, of: 1.4.1
Match, of: 1.5.1
striking period, of: 6.2.1
turn, of: 6.1.3
Etiquette (see Behaviour)
fault, after: 20.8
incorrect information, after: 20.10
wrong ball, after: 20.7
point scored in extra stroke: 20.4
when may be played: 20.5
Extra turn (see Extra stroke)
Flag, corner: 4.2.4
Forestalling play: Glossary
failure to: 16.2.9
Halfway line: 8.1
Handicap play: 20
ball jamming in: 9.5
in order: Glossary
order of hoops: 1.3
proper state: 3.2.3
run out of order: 7.9
scoring a point: 7.4
court surface, by: 9.3
defective equipment, by: 9.5
incorrect information, by: 9.6
loose impediment, by: 9.7
outside agency, by: 9.2
player, by: 9.1
playing of a stroke, with: 9.4
weather, by: 9.8
Jammed ball: 9.5
Jaws of hoop: Glossary
Loose impediment: Glossary
abuse, of: 16.2.3
aiming device: 3.4.4
damage to: 3.4.6(a)
disabled player: 3.4.5
halfway line: 8.1
penalty area: 17.1
when ball offside: 8.2
Offside opponent: Glossary
Offside owner: Glossary
ball, as: 6.4
ball leaving court: 6.4.2(a)
Overlapping play: 12
Overriding rule: 15.5
Partner ball: Glossary
proper state: 3.1.3
Penalty area: 17.1
Penalty area continuation: 17.2
Placement of ball: 6.6.2(b)
Point, scoring: 7.1
Receiver: Glossary, 20.4
Replacement of ball: 6.6
Running a hoop
Scoring clip: 4.2.6
Sequence (see Colour sequence)
Simultaneous play (see Overlapping play)
Start area: Glossary
Start of game: 5.2.2
Striker: Glossary, 1.2.2
Striker's ball: Glossary, 1.2.2
Striking period: Glossary, 6.2
consequences of: 6.3.5
Time-limited games: 19
time, addition of: 19.3.2
time, restoration of: 19.3.1
time, suspension of: 19.4
Touching the boundary: Glossary
Unacceptable behaviour: 16.2
Wiping ball (see Ball, cleaning)
Wrong ball: 10
Ball Swap: 10.5.6
earlier strokes and points: 10.6
fault in same stroke: 10.7
first four turns, in: 10.1.2
forestalling play: 10.2
playing when not entitled: 10.3
previous stroke, in: 10.4
Replace and Replay: 10.5.5
status of earlier strokes and points: 10.6
striker's side, by: 10.5
successive strokes: 10.3