Referee Training Course Manual - Section 2
Section 2 Training Course Notes
Firstly, a typical programme for a two-day course is given. This is followed by a set of Notes (Section 3) which can be used when giving a Laws Course. These Notes must be used in conjunction with the Laws Book, 7th Edition, 2021, version 1.5 of the WCF Refereeing Regulations, and the ORLAC (Official Rulings and Commentary on the Laws of Association Croquet). The aim of the Notes is to be an aide-memoir to lecturers to bring out the less obvious parts of the Laws. The notes also refer to the ORLAC when appropriate. The basic parts of each law are not elaborated on. The notes include advice on the demonstrations on the lawn.
The following notes are provided for attendees to the course and should be given out at the start of the course:
- Guidance on the Lawn (Appendix 3.4)
- The set of wiring diagrams (Appendix 3.5)
- Advice to Referees on double taps (Appendix 3.6)
Laws Course for Potential Referees
This course is intended for potential candidates for the Referee examination and covers both Law and practical refereeing skills. There is an associated set of 41 preparatory questions (not included in the online version) - which are an integral part of the course - and a handout dealing with some aspects of the necessary practical skills, including tests for wiring.
|General laws of play - 1|
|Static positions and wiring tests|
|General laws of play - 2|
|Dynamic positions: single ball - 1|
|Dynamic positions: single ball - 2|
|Other forms of play|
|Conduct of the game|
|Dynamic positions: croquet strokes|
|Referees' duties and responsibilities|
Laws 1 to 16
Structure of the Laws - emphasise the basic structure of the Laws, in particular the Glossary and the three key sections (4 to 22, explaining the basic rules of the game; 23 to 38, dealing with errors and irregularities; 54 to 63, covering the conduct of the game and the role of the players in upholding the laws); and the Refereeing Regulations, dealing with what a referee can do.
Law 1 - Objective of the Game
Law 2 - An Outline of the Game
Law 3 - Additional Laws Governing Other Types of Play
Law 4 - The Court
Law 5 - Equipment
Law 6 - Accessories
Law 7 - Start and End of a Game and Turn
Law 8 - Playing a Stroke and Definition of the Striking Period
Law 9 - Changes in the Status of a Ball
Law 10 - Decisions About the Order of Play
Law 11 - The Start of the Game
Law 12 - Choice of Striker's Ball
Law 13 - Ball off the Court
Law 14 - Ball in the Yard Line Area
Law 15 - Placement of a Ball on the Yard-Line
Law 16 - Wiring Lift
Part 1 Introduction
A. Summary of the Game
- Defines sides for singles and doubles
- Defines first to 26 points wins, except for shortened or time-limited games
- Defines striker, striker and partner balls
- States striker may not strike opponent's balls
- Defines the colours of the balls played by each side
- Defines hoop order
- States striker's ball may cause other balls to score points but can only cause a Rover ball to score the peg point if it is also a Rover ball
- Defines turn including roquet, croquet and continuation (including after hoop point) and states that each ball can only be roqueted once in a turn unless slate is wiped clean after hoop point
- Forward references to laws governing Advanced, Super-Advanced, Handicap and Doubles play
- Forward reference to special laws for tournament and match play
Commentary: These first three Laws are introductory and it is therefore never correct to use them to contradict anything that is covered elsewhere
B. The Court and Equipment
- Defines standard court with Diagram 1 (Page iv) including tolerances, and smaller courts
- Note that yard-line and baulk-lines are defined in the glossary
- Players accept court settings when they start the game with Law 63 being used for unacceptable situations found after the start (e.g. missing peg or hoop)
- Defines which boundary to use if more than one marked
Commentary: Only gross errors are corrected after the players have accepted the setting. Minor misplacements of hoops and pegs or non-rectangular marking of boundary are not corrected until the game has finished
- Defines peg, peg extension (including stating it is not part of the peg for the purposes of Law 22 - Peg Point. It is an accessory - removable, after which it becomes an outside agency), permits adjustment of crooked peg at any time except where Regulations prohibit to prevent time wasting in time limited games
- Specifies hoops and methods of adjustment in play - can be done at any time but balls must be replaced to prevent any gain in advantage. Note only striker can ask for adjustment. Checking the width of a hoop: using a trial ball and feeler gauges.
- Hoops can be set with top of carrots just above ground, but striker can have hoop hammered down so that carrots don't interfere. Referee should check width after doing so.
- Specifies balls, temporary removal and replacement - removed balls must be marked and balls must only be removed with permission of opponent if in a critical position. Alignment of grooves must not be changed if peeling.
- Specifies clips and where to put them. States clips, whether or not they belong to the game, are outside agencies when not attached to a hoop, the peg or the striker.
- Specifies mallets, end faces must be parallel and identical, artificial aids not permitted.
- States that mallets cannot be changed within a turn unless damaged
Commentary: The opponent may have the peg adjusted to his advantage but not the striker. Players should not strike or stamp on a loose hoop. If balls differ significantly in size, the Tournament Referee should sort them into sets and set the hoops accordingly. If the opponent notes that the striker is using his mallet, use Law 63 to swap mallets
- Defines corner flags and corner pegs as optional accessories which can be removed as required
- Check students know the correct position of the corner pegs (many do not). Point out that a ball can hit a corner peg and yet not be a corner ball (in fact, it can clip the outside of it at an angle of slightly less than 60 degrees to the side boundary and not even be in contact with a corner ball!).
C. General Laws Governing Play
- Start and winner of the game - note Law 11 defines where to put balls at start.
- End of a game - note it is when both players quit the court having agreed the result or start another game on it
- When a turn ends - the second clause gives circumstances in which a turn may end before it normally would, as defined in the first clause. Note the exception for timed games, in Law 61
- Events causing end of turn - 9 events given including quitting the court believing the turn has ended and the opponent has played his next stroke plus the taking of a bisque early without opponent forestalling.
- End of a turn
Commentary: When players leave the court both believing they have won, the game has not ended as there is no agreement
- Stroke - note that a second stroke must not be played until the first has ended if the result of either could materially affect the other.
- Striking period - Used for defining when Law 29 (Faults) applies.
- Start of stroke and striking period - When striker takes up stance to play a stroke (as in GC, note change from 6th Edition).
- When a stroke is played - contact between mallet and ball, misses ball, commits a fault.
- Deliberate interruption of a swing - OK provided that the ball is not hit
- Accidental contact - Critical and Non-critical strokes. Critical Stroke defined in Glossary and stroke is critical if position is marginal.
- End of striking period - Note that if the striker does not quit stance then striking period ends at end of stroke
- End of stroke - Explain the distinction between the end of the striking period (when the striker quits his stance under control) and the stroke (when all the balls have come to rest or left the court).
- Stroke declared to be played - Note striker must state which ball is declared as striker becomes responsible for its position. If not stated then responsible for both balls
- Permission to use mallet to position balls between strokes
Commentary: If 2 balls are very close together ascertain which ball is intended to be hit. Striker hitting a double banking ball is a nullity
- Ball in play - Note that a pegged out ball remains in play until the end of the stroke in which it was pegged out (i.e. can interfere with play after the peg out)
- Ball in hand - Note any ball can be in hand, not just the striker's. Note especially that a ball still on the court does not become in hand until the stroke ends. Also note that when a ball in hand is replaced on the lawn and more than one position is available, the striker may change his mind before the start of the next stroke
- Ball at rest - Note definition of when a ball is deemed to have come to rest in a critical position: stationary for 5 seconds or if needed to be tested only after position is adjudicated
- Live and Dead Balls - Used solely for entitlement to roquet/take croquet. Also states that a ball hitting a dead ball is not making a roquet. Note also that a ball does not become dead until croquet has been taken from it.
- Yard line and Corner balls - see Law 15
- Rover ball - see Glossary
Commentary: Note that if a ball comes to rest in a position so that a Referee is called for the next stroke and the ball moves while waiting for the Referee, the ball is replaced provided it was stationary for 5 seconds
If a striker's ball comes to rest against a dead ball then the striker may play any stroke but must not adjust the position of either ball before the stroke. If he does than he is unlawfully taking croquet from the dead ball.
Part 2 Level Singles Play
A - Lawful Play
- The Toss - Note that a player may not change his mind after declaring his choice except that when all four balls are played correctly onto the lawn but not in the chosen colours, the game continues with the colours as played. Note that the right of choice in best of three alternates. If pegging down a game in a match of this kind, remember to record who won the toss - it is easy for the players to forget.
- The Start (defined in Law 7.1 - Note that if there is no correct ball for a player to play in his fourth turn because they are (incorrectly) already played on to the lawn, the game is restarted.
- If, in the second, third or fourth turn, there is a ball that could be touched by placing a ball on the baulk line, the striker may choose to take croquet from it immediately.
- The rights of contact (or lift to position in super-advanced play) override the normal requirement that a ball must be played into the game from baulk.
Commentary: Bisques may be used before all four balls are in play
Note that the limit of claims for playing the wrong ball, which will be discussed later, is when a new turn starts with a correct ball. Therefore if, for example, the first three balls are put on the lawn, all of them incorrectly and it is then spotted, the error to be corrected is with the first ball only. Promise to reprise this when dealing with Law 27
- Right to Play Either Ball - Note exception for handicap games where you cannot change the striker's ball between turns and in ordinary handicap doubles the same player must play.
- How election is made - Note that for lifts the election is made by lifting the ball, and cannot be changed.
- Lifting a Ball is a deliberate act - accidental movement does not count.
- Lifting a Ball that is in contact with its partner ball does not count: it is only chosen as the striker's ball by playing a stroke.
Commentary: A ball may be trundled across the lawn using a mallet including using the faces but the action must be clearly different to that used for striking a ball
- Note that the opponent must be consulted before testing.
- If the position is too close to call, the ball is off.
Commentary: If an opponent claims that a ball has crossed the boundary and then came back onto the lawn, a Referee should only allow this if repeated tests suggest that it was likely. If there is a possibility of a cannon the stroke should be watched.
- Balls Other than the Striker's Ball - Note becomes a ball in hand.
- The Striker's Ball - Is played from where it is unless end of turn.
Commentary: Note that if a bisque is taken a striker's ball in the yard-line area must be placed on the yard-line before the bisque is taken.
- Absence of other balls - Note ball in hand always replaced before the next stroke.
- Presence of other balls - Direct and Indirect Interference. Must be placed on yard-line in contact with an interfering ball.
- Interference by the Striker's Ball - All other balls must be placed before the striker's ball if it is due to take croquet.
- Order of replacement - At striker's choice.
- How to replace - Note must consult opponent if any doubt about touching another ball. In marginal cases, ball replaced out of contact.
- Lift - Note that balls may be played from where they lie even if entitled to a lift
- Responsibility for position - Responsible if moved or shaken in play or replaced after rectification of a fault or other error, or declared to have played (a player should therefore always be explicit about which of his balls he is declaring). However, generally does not become responsible for any ball replaced due to interference (see Law 30.3).
- When Wired - Note that the player is entitled to hit any part of the target ball including both edges (another ball in the way cannot be used to claim a lift by reducing a target). Note also that an impeded swing can be caused by any part of the hoop except the jaws.
- Impeded Swing - Note that any part of the mallet face including both edges is entitled to strike the centre of the ball. Also note no change of mallet allowed between turns.
- Note carrots should be ignored when judging whether ball or swing impeded (see Law 184.108.40.206).
- Testing - Not allowed except by eye or by referee. Note benefit of doubt given to claimant.
- Change of decision - Not permitted except for where it is played on baulk line. Also note once lifted must be played from baulk.
Commentary: Note that a ball may be placed in any position to take croquet if there is a ball on or near a baulk line that it could touch when placed on it. This does not extend to other ball(s) touching such a ball, but such balls may then be arranged as part of a group.
A ball is wired if it has to pass through a hoop to hit a ball even if it could hit either side of the ball
When testing the striker's mallet ability to strike a ball, the Referee must ensure that he is testing with the mallet used at the end of the previous turn - stops wide mallet!
Practical Session 1
- Definition of the boundary [Law 4.3]
- Position of corner flag and corner pegs [Law 6]
- Testing for on/off the court [Law 13]
- Wiring [Law 16]
- Questions which must be asked of the claimant
- Standard example
- positioning of trial balls
- how to check for alignment
- the importance of checking from both ends
- note that a ball cannot be wired by another ball
- Ball in front of hoop
- trial ball and mallet required
- Hampered forward swing
- value of trial ball
- use claimant's mallet for the test
- 'trick' case with ball in the jaws of the hoop
- Hampered backswing
- 'translation' of shot to avoid distraction by obstacle
- check swing from side (at crown height) and back
- irrelevance of closeness of target to striker's ball
- Benefit of doubt
- Testing for on/off the court [Law 13]
- Testing for hoop run/not run [Law 20.6]
- Testing for position in croquet stroke in the jaws [Law 20.4.2]
Laws 17 to 22
Part 2 Level Singles Play (Continued)
A - Lawful Play (Continued)
- A Roquet can only be made on a live ball.
- Note comments on contacting more than one ball in the stroke, in particular that the nomination of a ball following simultaneous impact is by taking croquet.
- Note another ball may be roqueted during a croquet stroke (if that ball was live at the start of it).
- Note that a ball cannot score a point after making a roquet, but can cause other balls to score a point, including peg points, so must not be arrested unless it can have no effect on the game.
- The striker's ball becomes a ball in hand at the end of a stroke in which it make a roquet, unless it will be prevented from taking croquet because the striker's turn has ended. For example, under Law 7.6.3, if a Rover roquets another Rover onto the peg, the latter is immediately removed from the game and the striker's turn therefore ends - croquet cannot be taken. The striker's ball is therefore not in hand and is left where it comes to rest, unless it needs to be replaced on the yardline. This is why, when rushing a Rover towards the peg, the striker should not pick up his ball until he is confident that the roqueted ball will not be pegged out in the rush.
- Note that a croquet stroke is mandatory if the striker plays with a ball that has made a roquet in the previous stroke or is in contact with a live ball.
- Law 18.1.2 and Law 18.1.3 cover cases where the striker is required to play a croquet stroke even though a roquet hasn't been made. (These used to be called deemed roquets.) Law 18.2 covers the striker's ball running a hoop off the court and coming back in contact with a ball; Law 18.3 covers various possibilities at the start of a turn.
- Group of Balls - Unless the striker's ball has made a roquet in the preceding stroke or is being played into the game or has been lifted, if it is required to take croquet because it is in contact with a ball which is part of a group (or will be when the striker's ball is placed for the croquet stroke) it may do so from any ball in the group, the choice being made by playing the croquet stroke.
Commentary: The striker's ball cannot be used to bridge gaps between balls close together to form a group of balls.
- Ball Placement - Note that the striker's ball may be placed in any position on the ground in contact with the ball from which it is taking croquet but not in contact with any other ball.
- Cannons - Note that in 4 ball cannons, the fourth ball may be in contact with any one or two of the balls excluding the striker's ball
- Change of Decision - Balls can be repositioned until the stroke is played. This includes choice of striker's ball at the start of a turn, unless it has been lifted.
- Keeping Balls in Position - Note must not re-align ball milling of croqueted ball if peeling. (Law 5.3.2)
- Terms and How Played - The ball from which croquet is taken becomes known as the croqueted ball. Note that the striker must play into the croqueted ball and move or shake the ball.
- Ball off Court - Note that a pegged out ball leaving the court does not end the turn but that the turn ends if a peelee is sent off the lawn. Note also that the turn does not end if a ball other than the croqueted ball is cannoned off the lawn in the croquet stroke.
Commentary: If a cannon is set up with a dead ball, the shot should be watched to see whether there is a double hit after striking the dead ball as the exemption is not valid as there is no rush
- Note that continuation strokes are not cumulative.
- Definitions - Note Diagram 3 for detailed explanations. Demonstrate on the model hoop if available. This should be obvious to potential referees, but Law 20.4.2 in particular is worth demonstrating in order to show that the croqueted ball can be in the jaws but it can nevertheless be impossible to position the striker's ball so that it has not started to run the hoop. It is also worthwhile demonstrating how to check that a ball has/has not run/started to run its hoop in order. The definition of the jaws of a hoop is important in various contexts.
- Starting to Run - See Diagram 3 and note that if ball comes to rest after rolling back without starting to run then the fact that it may have started to run the hoop is ignored
- Completed the Running - See Diagram 3 and Note that if ball comes to rest after running back without completing the running of the hoop then the fact that it may have completed the running of the hoop is ignored.
- Special Situations - 3 situations defined. Note that if entered from the wrong side the ball has only to clear the non-playing side to be entitled to run the hoop subsequently. Note also that when placed in a croquet stroke in such a way that it breaks the non-playing side, the hoop cannot be scored without going back to not breaking the non-playing side. Further note that having started to run the hoop, this is cancelled if the ball takes croquet before completing the running. Finally, the movement of a hoop cannot cause a point to be lost at all, and cannot cause a point to be scored except for when the movement is caused by another ball.
- Peeling - Defined in Glossary
- Adjudicating Close Positions - If it cannot be determined whether a ball is protruding from the jaws or not, then it must be judged not to be. This means that in marginal cases a hoop is run or a ball has not started to run the hoop.
Commentary: A ball half way through a hoop is not necessarily prevented from running the hoop if it becomes a ball in hand - e.g. picking up to wipe
A ball cannot be peeled say by kicking a ball through and not noticing until after the limit of claims. The new position will then be lawful but hoop point not scored.
- Hoop and Roquet - Note that provided a hoop is scored in order, if any ball, live or dead before the stroke is played, clear of the non-playing side of the hoop is contacted by the striker's ball before the running of the hoop is completed then the hoop is scored and the ball is deemed to have been roqueted.
- Note that a double hit caused by the roquet does not count as a fault if the hoop is run (Law 29.2.4), but a crush or double tap off the wire is still possible. If the other (dead) ball is in the hoop, of course, the striker is not absolved from any fault he may commit.
- Other Cases - Note that if a live ball is not clear of the non-playing side then only a roquet is made. The hoop cannot be scored in the same stroke. Note that any striking of a dead ball not clear of the playing side during the running of a hoop is not a roquet unless they come to rest together.
- Balls Coming to Rest in Contact - Note that no roquet is made, but the striker will be required to take croquet in the next stroke.
- Adjudicating Close Positions - If it cannot be determined whether a ball is clear of the jaws, then it must be judged not to be.
Commentary: If a live ball is in the jaws and a dead ball is beyond the hoop and the striker's ball hits the dead ball having run the hoop and then bounces back and hits the live ball the hoop is not scored
- How a Peg Point is Scored - A ball must be a Rover to score any peg point. Note that a non-Rover ball cannot peg out a Rover ball. Note the reference to handicap play
- Special Situations - 7 situations are defined. Note choices in simultaneous positions. Note also the straightening of the peg cannot peg out a ball at rest.
- Ball Remaining in Play - Note that after being pegged out a ball can cause other points to be scored and so must not be arrested unless clear of all such possibilities.
- Removal from Court - Note that Law 31 applies if a pegged out ball remains on the court.
Laws 23 to 38
Part 2 Level Singles Play (Continued)
Law 30 - General Principles Governing Interferences
Law 31 - Ball Wrongly Removed or Not Removed From the Game
Law 32 - Player Misled by False Information or Misplaced Ball or Clip
Law 33 - Using a Ball Which is an Outside Agency
Law 34 - Outside Agency or Player Interfering with a Ball During a Stroke
Law 35 - Outside Agency or Opponent Interfering with the Playing of a Stroke
Law 36 - Interference with a Ball between Strokes
Law 37 - Interference by Natural Forces or Features of a Court and its Surroundings
Law 38 - Miscellaneous Interference
B. Irregularities in Play
- Errors are mistakes that involve playing a stroke incorrectly; interferences are irregularities or mistakes of a different nature. Note that a fault is a specific type of error.
- Definition - Note the requirement to forestall in a manner that might reasonably be expected to convey the request: this might depend on the opponent's hearing. No specific form of words is required: just calling the opponent's name will suffice.
- Opponent must not Forestall - These are the fatal situations, which result in end of turn. It is thought that bad feeling could result if forestalling these was required or permitted, and the opponent failed to notice the error in time to forestall.
- Opponent must Forestall - Note 6 reasons with 2 exceptions. It is thought better to avoid non-fatal errors being made rather than have to deal with them afterwards.
- When to Forestall - Note that a player must not forestall during a stroke unless necessary to prevent a limit of claims being passed.
- Striker Continuing to Play - Note that Law 26 applies.
- Time when errors or interferences occur (which may be earlier than when they are discovered) is defined because they are considered in that order, with some exceptions.
- Errors or interferences discovered after their limit of claims are generally ignored.
- Errors or interferences occurring in the same stroke are dealt with in the order in which they appear in the book, except that interferences are dealt with before errors.
Commentary: Note that non-fatal errors in a multiple error position can be over-ruled by an end of turn incident occurring
C. Errors in Play
- Definitions; Deliberate Errors; Striker must Declare; Rectification - Note that when balls are replaced they can be replaced in any lawful position unless a fault was committed. In the case of a ball wrongly played in a lift stroke (by the wrong player of a doubles partnership, for example), this means that it can be replaced anywhere on either baulk. Note also that only balls that were live before the error are live after rectification.
- Limit of Claims - Note that a new turn or end of the game overrides the limit for claims.
- After Limit of Claims - Only hoops scored in order count. Note also that the limit of claim for pegging out a ball when playing with the wrong ball is the end of the game.
- Four cases, including playing when forestalled.
- "Player" used instead of "striker" as this error may be committed by someone thinking they are, but who actually is not, the striker.
- No penalty as such, just rectification of any unlawful play, after which player entitled to play then does so.
- Only applies to striking a ball in play (see Glossary) that belongs to the game (otherwise see Law 33) and which is not, or cannot validly become, the striker's ball.
- Limit of claims is the first stroke with the correct ball at the start of a turn after the error(s).
- Note that after playing the wrong ball in the first four turns the side that committed the error chooses where to place the correct ball on the baulk line.
- Player Unable to Play Correct Ball - Note that the game is restarted if there is no correct ball to play in the fourth turn of the game.
- Exchange of Colours - Note that if the wrong colours are used in the first four turns then the choice of colours after the toss is deemed to be reversed and the game continues (without swapping the balls).
- Forestalling - Note that the opponent (and by extension an active referee) must forestall if he observes that a ball is misplaced (e.g. not in contact before a croquet stroke is played), unless a fatal error is about to occur.
- Stroke can be played with ball known to be misplaced if marked for double banking and irrelevant.
- Ball moving out of position due to natural forces - Note also that a ball is deemed not to be in contact if it actually is in contact provided that the striker had placed the balls out of contact.
- Other Cases - Unless the misplacement is one of the specific cases below, the stoke is lawful unless some other error or interference has occurred.
- A misplaced ball may remain so for several turns: it remains misplaced until its position is corrected or it is moved by play.
- Unlawful Croquet Stroke involving a Dead Ball - Note that the correction within the limit of claims is end of turn.
- Unlawful Croquet Stroke involving a Live Ball - Note that the correction within the limit of claims only involves end of turn if that occurred for some other reason. The stroke is treated as a croquet stroke, so failing to shake, or sending the croqueted ball off the lawn, ends the turn even if croquet should not have been taken from it. When analysing play, remember that a ball only becomes dead when croquet is taken from it, not when it is roqueted.
- Failing to Take Croquet when Required to do so - Note that the correction within the limit of claims only involves end of turn if that occurred for some other reason. When analysing play, the first stroke in error is treated as though the striker was entitled to and did play a stroke that was not a croquet stroke.
- Failing to Play a Ball from Baulk - Note that the correction within the limit of claims only involves end of turn if that occurred for some other reason (e.g. not making a roquet or earning a continuation stroke). If not, striker restarts the turn with that ball.
- Lifting a Ball when not Entitled to do so - as above, except that either ball may be played.
Commentary: Note that there is detailed advice on this law in the ORLAC
- Definition - The 14 faults must be fully explained and discussed with demonstrations on the lawn. Points to note, though, are:
- the mechanics of the crush (the '4mm rule')
- the exclusions (in 29.1.6 and 29.1.7) for double taps or maintenance of contact in roquets and peg outs
- replacement 'in the position it occupied before the first stoke in error' (unlike other errors)
- the standard of proof: civil rather than criminal
- Remedies - Note that the striker must ask whether his opponent wishes to have the fault rectified, if not then the balls are played where they are. Highlight that the referee MUST NOT replace balls before the opponent has responded. However, referee can mark current positions and replace balls to show the opponent where they were before the stroke was played.
- Specified terms - Note particularly the definition of substantial damage which must be caused by the mallet, not by the ball alone.
- Exemptions - Note the exceptions for double hits when making a roquet or pegging out. Note also that the period during which faults 1 and 2 can be committed may be shorter than the striking period.
Commentary: There is a full set of Commentaries on Law 29 in the ORLAC. The following are some key points:
- The term 'dropping' in fault 4 means letting go of the shaft
- Not a fault if after making a roquet the ball bounces back and strikes the shaft
- Striking with other than the end face fault only applies to the initial impact on the ball
- Clothes includes clips attached to the striker when the stroke is made
- The extent of damage that should be faulted is defined
- Opponent making decision on whether to replace a ball after a fault cannot change mind
C. Interference with Play
- Definition (see Glossary); Deliberate Interference; Player must Declare - Note that any player must forestall or cease play immediately if they believe any interference has been or is about to be committed by either player.
- Remedy - For major interference (Laws 31 to 33) Play reverts to state before interference; otherwise follow remedy in individual laws, except for general principle that responsibility under wiring law does not change as a result of an interference. May be a restriction on line of play.
- Only applies to play affected by a ball wrongly removed in the misapprehension that it has been pegged out, or left on the court after being pegged out. This may be after the mistake was made.
- Limit of claims is end of game.
- Earlier Errors - Note that if within the limit of claims of any errors when the play is cancelled then the corrections for the error(s) applies.
Commentary: If a ball is not correctly removed after being pegged out, it is removed after when spotted provided that it had not interfered with the game while it was incorrectly on the lawn.
- General - Note that the limit of claims is the end of the game. Not easy to master. Note that only a misplaced clip, misplaced ball caused by double bankers and false information about the state of the game provided by the opponent, referee or timekeeper, are grounds for complaint.
- Play only reverts to the point at which the player actually embarked on the line of play he would otherwise not have adopted. Taking bisques (42.7) and deciding which of a doubles pair should start the turn (45.5) are covered by 'line of play'.
- Remedy - Note that if the misleading occurred at the start of a turn, then either ball may be played in the replay.
- Earlier Errors - Note that if within the limit of claims of any errors when the play is cancelled then the corrections for the error(s) applies.
- Line of Play; Duty of Players.
Commentary: Note that if a misplaced clip is caused by an outside agency (double bankers/careless Referee) then the both players have the remedy of this law.
- Applies to ball from other games, either double banked or from an adjacent court, and balls belonging to the game but which should not be in play.
- Only applies to ball struck by mallet, or the croqueted ball or one of a group in a croquet stroke, not to one aimed at or roqueted.
- Note special provision for swapping with ball of same colour when both off the court.
- Interference by the Striker - This is a fault if it occurs during the striking period, otherwise treated in the same way as by an opponent.
- Other Interference - Note restrictive conditions for a replay, but a replay, following the same line of play, is mandatory if they are fulfilled.
- Replacement of a Ball after Interference - Note that a moving ball is put where it would have come to rest. Note also that a ball cannot make a roquet, be roqueted, or score any point after interference. Note also that if a croqueted ball would have certainly gone off of the lawn in a croquet stroke then the turn ends and the balls placed accordingly - there is no replay in this case.
- Loose impediments are not outside agencies and do not permit a replay, but must not be used to the striker's advantage.
Commentary: There is a comprehensive set of comments in the ORLAC
- Applies to interference with striker, court or equipment, other than balls (which are covered by other Laws). The stroke is normally replayed following the same line of play.
- Note only applies between strokes - see Laws 34 and 37 for interference during a stroke.
- Ball is replaced (and is treated as misplaced if not), but note restriction on subsequent critical strokes if interference is by striker.
- Ball only replaced if not moved by stroke. Otherwise no relief if ball blown off course.
- Fixed Obstacles and Changes of Level - Only relief is to move ball(s) before playing the stroke, after consulting opponent.
- Special Damage - See Glossary for definition. Preference is to repair if possible, otherwise only relief is to move ball(s) before playing the strike, after consulting the opponent.
- Moving Other Balls - Note that when the striker's ball is moved, then other appropriate balls must be moved before the stroke. Note also that if unaffected by the stroke these balls must be replaced.
- Turn Wrongly Ending - Note no penalty, only correction.
- Stroke affected by mis-set hoop or mis-shapen ball - Note that a replay can only be claimed if striker was attempting to run hoop. Replay is optional, but if taken then hoop must be attempted again.
- Before testing, Referee should mark where stroke was played from and current position of ball(s).
- Ball striking a Clip or a Peg Extension - If attached to hoop or peg then no relief. Note that should a clip or peg extension not be in contact with hoop/peg, then they are outside agencies (see Law 34). Also applies to clips from other games.
- Displaced Boundary Marking - Note that when the misplacement occurred before a stroke is made then all tests for balls off the lawn must be made before correcting the boundary marking. Note also that if the displacement occurs after the stroke has begun then the marking must be corrected before testing. Note that if a marking is corrected, then all yard line balls must be checked and corrected if required, including any balls off of the yard line in the immediate vicinity.
Practical Session 2
Dynamic Positions 1: Single Ball Hoop Strokes
- Special damage [Law 37.3]
- definition and identification
- Attempted roquet of ball near wire/peg
- If target is in contact with hoop or peg, mark line of centres, which is the direction the ball will travel if only obstacle is hit
- Try to anticipate possible outcomes: strange things can happen, especially when the ball is in the jaws
- Striking period
- Faults in hoop strokes
Practical Session 3
Dynamic Positions 2: Single Ball Strokes after Running Hoop
- Hampered continuation stroke
- Hammer shots
- Scatter shots
- Second hit caused by rebound off hoop - hoop and roquet where non-striker ball is not central and close to hoop
Laws 39 to 53
Part 3 Other Forms of Play
Law 45 - Ordinary Level Doubles Play
Law 46 - Ordinary Advanced or Super-Advanced Doubles Play
Law 47 - Ordinary Handicap Doubles Play
Law 48 - Alternate Stroke Level Doubles Play
Law 49 - Alternate Stroke Advanced or Super-Advanced Doubles Play
Law 50 - Alternate Stroke Handicap Doubles Play
A. Advanced Singles Play
- Emphasise that laws applicable to level singles play apply, subject to this law.
- Player has the option of playing a ball where it lies, and can lift a ball when it is in contact with another ball.
- Once a player has pegged out a ball of either side, he is no longer entitled to a lift or contact under this Law - but is still entitled to a wiring lift.
- This law overrides Law 11.2) for playing from baulk at the start of the game when a contact can be taken.
- Go through the detail of changes of decision.
B. Super-Advanced Singles Play
- Extension of Advanced Play with hoop 4 as an additional lift hoop and option of free placement if all three lift hoops run ahead of partner ball.
- Option of free placement lost if opponent pegs out a ball (to remove disincentive for TPOs)
- Note ball must go off, not just end in yard-line area, to avoid penalty.
- 2nd player has choice of leaving 1st ball where it lies or requiring its owner to move it to baulk.
C. Handicap Singles Play
- Emphasise that the laws applicable to level singles play apply subject to Laws 42 to 44.
Various points to note, including:
- Peels do not count in half-bisque turns
- Full bisque cannot be split into two half-bisques
- The extension period restriction on using a bisque in time-limited games (see Law 61.2)
- The way a bisque must be taken
- Opponent's duty to forestall if striker's turn has not yet ended
- If playing a wrong ball at start of non-bisque turn has option to play with either of his balls after taking bisque
- Line of play when misled includes taking bisques
- Revise the rectification of a wrongly pegged out ball by reference to Law 31
- Note an inactive referee can intervene under Reg R4.3, but non-qualified spectators should keep quiet.
- Emphasise that any points cancelled before the end of the game lead to a restoration of all bisques used by that ball after the last point scored in order.
Commentary: Note that a bisque taken to start a turn when the wrong ball is played is not restored
C. Doubles Play
- There are two forms of doubles: Ordinary, the traditional form in which a player plays only one ball of their side and plays an entire turn, and Alternate-Stroke, in which the players of a side play whichever ball of their side they have chosen as the striker's ball alternately whenever it is their turn to play. Each form can either be played as level, advanced or handicap.
- Ordinary Doubles does not require a partner. The celebrated example (following a ruling in 1969 that a player could place his absent partner's ball on a baulk line and deem it to be played) is of John Solomon winning a best of three match +24 +21 in the 1972 Opens against Terence Read and his mother, when Pat Cotter was absent at a bridge tournament in Paris. He lost the first game of the next round (against Ian Ballieu and Bernie Duthie) by 19 and play stopped for the day during the next game. The following morning, Cotter returned and they proceeded to the final - losing there to William Ormerod and Nigel Aspinall.
- Law 45.3.2 means that a fault can be committed if a ball hits one's partner during a stroke, before the striking period has ended.
- Both the wrong player of the side playing the striker's ball and either player of the side playing anything other than the striker's ball are treated as the fatal error of playing the wrong ball. The limit of claims is start of next turn to be played with the correct ball, but any points scored for a ball struck by the partner of its owner are cancelled if the error is discovered at any time before the end of the game.
- Limit of claims for playing the partner ball is start of next turn to be played with the correct ball, but any points scored while doing so are cancelled if the error is discovered at any time before the end of the game.
- Note option of either player playing after opponent's ball struck in first turn.
- The only limit on peels is peels on partner ball. Each player on the side can peel up to that limit.
- Alternate-Stroke Doubles does require both players of the side to be present when the game starts.
- If the wrong player of the side plays a stroke with the striker's ball, it is treated under Law 48.4 as a minor, non-fatal, error of playing out of sequence, rather than as the fatal error of playing the wrong ball under Law 27. However, either player of the side playing a stroke with any ball other than the striker's ball is still treated as a wrong ball error.
- Note provisions for re-starting sequence after errors or interferences.
- Either player can take any bisques available to the side and there is no limit on peeling.
E. Shortened Games
- Note that in 1 and 9 (3-Back) game, hoop 1 cannot be scored by peeling partner (to prevent turn ending abruptly if there is an Irish peel at hoop 1)
Laws 54 to 63
Part 4 Conduct of the Game
A. General Laws of Conduct
- The "state of the game" is (non-exhaustively) defined in the Glossary. Note that it refers to its current, not potential future, state (thus a player isn't required to say which ball he will play with in the next turn).
- Giving incorrect information (even inadvertently) can be redressed under Law 32
- This is a suitable point to expound on the underlying 'philosophy' of the game: the players are principally responsible for the conduct of their game and, except in a few exceptional circumstances, have an absolute right to determine when they should call for assistance from a referee. They are, in addition, not absolved of their various responsibilities under 55.2 even when a referee is active.
- The role of referees is essentially secondary, supporting the players in their conduct of the game. If inactive, they should only interfere in exceptional circumstances (see R4). If active, they have the rights and responsibilities of the opponent.
- Striker has responsibility to consult opponent before playing questionable stroke (which is a wider concept than just one which may be faulted).
- Note (Law 55.6) for dealing with situations where players' opinions differ.
- See (63.5) for more detailed provisions concerning expedition in play.
- Note that (56.4) does not oblige the striker to take a lift when the claim is allowed.
- Principle is that players should play unaided. Note that team members/managers count as spectators and are specifically prohibited from offering advice.
- Separate provisions for dealing with cases where a player is informed about an alleged error or interference that has taken place; one that may be about to; and other unsolicited advice.
- Referees have power under (Law 63.4) to restore balance of game after this law applied. Example is that after rectifying an error which neither player noticed, then the opponent should not be given an easy innings. Shooting at an arbitrary placed ball with a lift shot is suggested.
- Player must not offer advice to opponent.
- Note that an opponent should not move onto a court until the striker has indicated whether he is taking a bisque.
B. Special Laws
- Note the comment on outside agencies includes the players in the double banked game
- Note that players of the other game should be consulted before moving any of their balls and that balls should not be moved if they are in critical positions unless prolonged delays would result otherwise.
- 60.1 Note that all the Laws are subject to any provisions in the current Tournament Regulations as published by the local governing body.
- 60.4 Note that players may appeal to the Referee of the Tournament if they believe a wiring test is being carried out incorrectly - but not to judge whether the referee can see clearly!
- 60.5 Note that the law says no reason to take offence at a referee being called in to watch strokes as players can have differing views as to what the law actually says.
- 60.6 There is a method of dealing with impasses in Appendix 7
- A time-keeper is not generally or necessarily a referee, and when a referee so acts he is not acting as an active referee. He therefore cannot correct irregularities, though he is of course capable of acting as a spectator referee.
- The time-keeper should watch the game, not turn away from it; and should call time distinctly - if possible, standing near the striker - and make sure that both players know precisely when it was called.
- Note that if the balls moved as a result of the striker's final stroke have not yet come to rest or need to be replaced on the court, the striker may validly forestall the opponent from playing. If time is running short, the opponent cannot for example play (or declare) immediately, in order to ensure that time is called in the striker's next turn.
- Explain the use of bisques in timed endings.
- Emphasise that local laws have to be approved by the relevant governing body and must be advertised at the club
- Law 63.2 gives general powers, which should be used sparingly, and not simply to correct apparent injustices!
- Laws 63.4-63.6 give guidance as to how to act in specific situations.
Practical Session 4
Dynamic Positions 3: Croquet Strokes
- Peg out
- do not use the 'finger on peg' method.
- Faults in croquet strokes
Regulations for Refereeing
Go through the WCF Refereeing Regulations (which have been adopted into Croquet England's Tournament Regulations), highlighting the following points:
- Definitions of Qualified and Authorised Referees (by default all Qualified Referees are Authorised for Croquet England tournaments). Authorised Referees can be authorised to act on request, or placed in charge of a specific game or games. A referee on request is inactive until called upon, then remains active until they have dealt with the situation.
- R2 deals with powers and duties of the Tournament Referee
- R3 deals with powers and duties of an Active Referee. The distinction between dealing with past incidents and watching play.
- R4 deals with very limited powers of an Inactive (used to be called Spectator) Referee
- R5 deals with restrictions on using information obtained whilst inactive or previously active
- R6 deals with appeals
- R7 gives limited powers to players not involved in the game to adjudicate in certain situations