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Referee Training Course Manual - Section 2

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Section 2 Training Course Notes

Firstly, a typical programme for a two-day course is given. This is followed by a set of Notes (Section 3) which can be used when giving a Laws Course. These Notes must be used in conjunction with the Laws Book, 7th Edition, 2021, version 1.6 of the WCF Refereeing Regulations, and the ORLAC (Official Rulings and Commentary on the Laws of Association Croquet). The aim of the Notes is to be an aide-memoir to lecturers to bring out the less obvious parts of the Laws. The notes also refer to the ORLAC when appropriate. The basic parts of each law are not elaborated on. The notes include advice on the demonstrations on the lawn.

The following notes are provided for attendees to the course and should be given out at the start of the course:

Laws Course for Potential Referees

This course is intended for potential candidates for the Referee examination and covers both Law and practical refereeing skills. There is an associated set of 41 preparatory questions (not included in the online version) - which are an integral part of the course - and a handout dealing with some aspects of the necessary practical skills, including tests for wiring.

Laws 1 to 16

General laws of play - 1

Practical 1

Static positions and wiring tests

Laws 17 to 22

General laws of play - 2

Laws 23 to 38


Practical 2

Dynamic positions: single ball - 1

Practical 3

Dynamic positions: single ball - 2

Laws 39 to 53

Other forms of play

Laws 54 to 63

Conduct of the game

Practical 4

Dynamic positions: croquet strokes


Referees' duties and responsibilities

Laws 1 to 16

Structure of the Laws - emphasise the basic structure of the Laws, in particular the Glossary and the three key sections (4 to 22, explaining the basic rules of the game; 23 to 38, dealing with errors and irregularities; 54 to 63, covering the conduct of the game and the role of the players in upholding the laws); and the Refereeing Regulations, dealing with what a referee can do.

Part 1 Introduction

A. Summary of the Game

Law 1 - Objective of the Game
Law 2 - An Outline of the Game
Law 3 - Additional Laws Governing Other Types of Play

Commentary: These first three Laws are introductory and it is therefore never correct to use them to contradict anything that is covered elsewhere

B. The Court and Equipment

Law 4 - The Court

Commentary: Only gross errors are corrected after the players have accepted the setting. Minor misplacements of hoops and pegs or non-rectangular marking of boundary are not corrected until the game has finished

Law 5 - Equipment

Commentary: The opponent may have the peg adjusted to his advantage but not the striker. Players should not strike or stamp on a loose hoop. If balls differ significantly in size, the Tournament Referee should sort them into sets and set the hoops accordingly. If the opponent notes that the striker is using his mallet, use Law 63 to swap mallets

Law 6 - Accessories

C. General Laws Governing Play

Law 7 - Start and End of a Game and Turn

Commentary: When players leave the court both believing they have won, the game has not ended as there is no agreement

Law 8 - Playing a Stroke and the Definition of the Striking Period

Commentary: If 2 balls are very close together ascertain which ball is intended to be hit. Striker hitting a double banking ball is a nullity

Law 9 - Changes in the Status of a Ball

Commentary: Note that if a ball comes to rest in a position so that a Referee is called for the next stroke and the ball moves while waiting for the Referee, the ball is replaced provided it was stationary for 5 seconds

If a striker's ball comes to rest against a dead ball then the striker may play any stroke but must not adjust the position of either ball before the stroke. If he does than he is unlawfully taking croquet from the dead ball.

Part 2 Level Singles Play

A - Lawful Play

Law 10 - Decisions About the Order of Play
Law 11 - The Start of a Game

Commentary: Bisques may be used before all four balls are in play

Note that the limit of claims for playing the wrong ball, which will be discussed later, is when a new turn starts with a correct ball. Therefore if, for example, the first three balls are put on the lawn, all of them incorrectly and it is then spotted, the error to be corrected is with the first ball only. Promise to reprise this when dealing with Law 27

Law 12 - Choice of Striker's Ball

Commentary: A ball may be trundled across the lawn using a mallet including using the faces but the action must be clearly different to that used for striking a ball

Law 13 - Ball Off the Court

Commentary: If an opponent claims that a ball has crossed the boundary and then came back onto the lawn, a Referee should only allow this if repeated tests suggest that it was likely. If there is a possibility of a cannon the stroke should be watched.

Law 14 - Ball in the Yard Line Area

Commentary: Note that if a bisque is taken a striker's ball in the yard-line area must be placed on the yard-line before the bisque is taken.

Law 15 - Placement of a Ball on the Yard-Line
Law 16 - Wiring Lift

Commentary: Note that a ball may be placed in any position to take croquet if there is a ball on or near a baulk line that it could touch when placed on it. This does not extend to other ball(s) touching such a ball, but such balls may then be arranged as part of a group.

A ball is wired if it has to pass through a hoop to hit a ball even if it could hit either side of the ball

When testing the striker's mallet ability to strike a ball, the Referee must ensure that he is testing with the mallet used at the end of the previous turn - stops wide mallet!

Practical Session 1

Static Positions

Laws 17 to 22

Part 2 Level Singles Play (Continued)

A - Lawful Play (Continued)

Law 17 - Roquet
Law 18 - Croquet Stroke

Commentary: The striker's ball cannot be used to bridge gaps between balls close together to form a group of balls.

Commentary: If a cannon is set up with a dead ball, the shot should be watched to see whether there is a double hit after striking the dead ball as the exemption is not valid as there is no rush

Law 19 - Continuation Stroke
Law 20 - Hoop Point

Commentary: A ball half way through a hoop is not necessarily prevented from running the hoop if it becomes a ball in hand - e.g. picking up to wipe

A ball cannot be peeled say by kicking a ball through and not noticing until after the limit of claims. The new position will then be lawful but hoop point not scored.

Law 21 - Striker's Ball Running its Hoop and Hitting Another Ball

Commentary: If a live ball is in the jaws and a dead ball is beyond the hoop and the striker's ball hits the dead ball having run the hoop and then bounces back and hits the live ball the hoop is not scored

Law 22 - Peg Point

Laws 23 to 38

Part 2 Level Singles Play (Continued)

B. Irregularities in Play

Law 23 - Forestalling Play
Law 24 - Multiple Errors and Interferences

Commentary: Note that non-fatal errors in a multiple error position can be over-ruled by an end of turn incident occurring

C. Errors in Play

Law 25 - General Principles
Law 26 - Playing when Not Entitled
Law 27 - Playing a Wrong Ball
Law 28 - Playing when a Ball is Misplaced

Commentary: Note that there is detailed advice on this law in the ORLAC

Law 29 - Faults

Commentary: There is a full set of Commentaries on Law 29 in the ORLAC. The following are some key points:

C. Interference with Play

Law 30 - General Principles Governing Interferences
Law 31 - Ball Wrongly Removed or Not Removed From the Game

Commentary: If a ball is not correctly removed after being pegged out, it is removed after when spotted provided that it had not interfered with the game while it was incorrectly on the lawn.

Law 32 - Player Misled by False Information or Misplaced Ball or Clip

Commentary: Note that if a misplaced clip is caused by an outside agency (double bankers/careless Referee) then the both players have the remedy of this law.

Law 33 - Using a Ball Which is an Outside Agency
Law 34 - Outside Agency or Player Interfering with a Ball During a Stroke

Commentary: There is a comprehensive set of comments in the ORLAC

Law 35 - Outside Agency or Opponent Interfering with the Playing of a Stroke
Law 36 - Interference with a Ball between Strokes
Law 37 - Interference by Natural Forces or Features of a Court and its Surroundings
Law 38 - Miscellaneous Interference

Practical Session 2

Dynamic Positions 1: Single Ball Hoop Strokes

Practical Session 3

Dynamic Positions 2: Single Ball Strokes after Running Hoop

Laws 39 to 53

Part 3 Other Forms of Play

A. Advanced Singles Play

Law 39 - Optional Lift or Contact

B. Super-Advanced Singles Play

Law 40 - Optional Lift, Contact or Free Placement
Law 41 - Restricted Opening

C. Handicap Singles Play

Law 42 - Bisques

Various points to note, including:

Law 43 - Pegging Out in Handicap Games
Law 44 - Restoration of Bisques

Commentary: Note that a bisque taken to start a turn when the wrong ball is played is not restored

C. Doubles Play

Law 45 - Ordinary Level Doubles Play
Law 46 - Ordinary Advanced or Super-Advanced Doubles Play
Law 47 - Ordinary Handicap Doubles Play
Law 48 - Alternate-Stroke Level Doubles Play
Law 49 - Alternate-Stroke Advanced or Super-Advanced Doubles Play
Law 50 - Alternate-Stroke Handicap Doubles Play

E. Shortened Games

Law 51 - Shortened Games
Law 52 - Advanced Play in Shortened Games
Law 53 - Handicap Play in Shortened Games

Laws 54 to 63

Part 4 Conduct of the Game

A. General Laws of Conduct

Law 54 - The State of the Game
Law 55 - Responsibility for Conduct of the Game
Law 56 - Expedition in Play
Law 57 - Advice and Aids
Law 58 - Miscellaneous Laws of Conduct

B. Special Laws

Law 59 - Double-Banked Games
Law 60 - Tournaments and Match Play
Law 61 - Time Limited Games
Law 62 - Local Laws
Law 63 - Overriding Law

Practical Session 4

Dynamic Positions 3: Croquet Strokes

Regulations for Refereeing

Go through the WCF Refereeing Regulations (which have been adopted into Croquet England's Tournament Regulations), highlighting the following points: